by Charivarius / ʃaːriˈvaːrijəs /
The pseudonym of Dr Gerard Nolst Trenité (20th July 1870 – 9th October 1946)
Pronunciation Activation Pack.
Any student of English will have quickly become aware that the spelling of English appears to have been devised by a lunatic.
The few spelling “rules” that exist are of little use, as most have multiple exceptions.
The absurdity of English spelling has inspired many teachers and writers to demonstrate just how ridiculously complicated it is.
Chief among these was Gerard Nolst Trenité, who wrote the oft-quoted poem, The Chaos, which is the subject of this English lesson.
The first version of The Chaos was 146 lines long and appeared in the author’s 1920 English teaching textbook Drop Your Foreign Accent: engelsche uitspraakoefeningen.
The version you see here has 274 lines and, according to the Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, “This version is essentially the author’s own final text… A few minor corrections have however been made, and occasional words from earlier editions have been preferred.”
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1994/2 pp27-30 later designated J17
Definitive British English Version
Many attempts to recite the poem The Chaos can be found on the Internet.
Listening to many of them, I realised that few, if any of the readers managed to pronounce each and every word correctly.
Many of the recordings are of the shorter, 146-line poem from the original 1920’s book, or use an American accent.
I wanted to produce a British English version of the most comprehensive version of the poem I could find.
I determined to produce a “definitive” version of this famous poem using the latest technology to ensure accuracy.
IPA and AI
To lessen the possibility of error, I decided to first transcribe the entire poem into IPA symbols.
I double checked the accuracy of the IPA transcript with all the extant sources of the poem that I could muster.
I then fed the IPA transcript through an artificial neural net speech synthesis program to produce the most accurate rendition of the poem possible.
I hope you are as pleased with the result as I am.
Some of the vocabulary used by Charivarius / ʃaːriˈvaːrijəs / in his poem is obsolete.
Likewise, the pronunciation of certain words has changed over time and is no longer current. I have, however, retained the original pronunciation to keep the rhyme of the lines intact.
To help students fully understand the poem, I have created a comprehensive dictionary of all of the unusual words in the poem.
There is also a Vocabulary Activator in the pack which will test your knowledge of the vocabulary.
Gerard Nolst Trenité
Dearest creature in creation
Studying English pronunciation,
I will teach you in my verse
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse and worse.
I will keep you, Susy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy;
Tear in eye, your dress you’ll tear;
Queer, fair seer, hear my prayer.
Pray, console your loving poet,
Make my coat look new, dear, sew it!
Just compare heart, hear and heard,
Dies and diet, lord and word.
Sword and sward, retain and Britain
(Mind the latter how it’s written).
Made has not the sound of bade,
Say – said, pay – paid, laid but plaid.
Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as vague and ague,
But be careful how you speak,
Say: gush, bush, steak, streak, break, bleak ,
Previous, precious, fuchsia, via
Recipe, pipe, studding-sail, choir;
Woven, oven, how and low,
Script, receipt, shoe, poem, toe.
Say, expecting fraud and trickery:
Daughter, laughter and Terpsichore,
Branch, ranch, measles, topsails, aisles,
Missiles, similes, reviles.
Wholly, holly, signal, signing,
Same, examining, but mining,
Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
Solar, mica, war and far.
From “desire”: desirable – admirable from “admire”,
Lumber, plumber, bier, but brier,
Topsham, brougham, renown, but known,
Knowledge, done, lone, gone, none, tone,
One, anemone, Balmoral,
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel.
Gertrude, German, wind and wind,
Beau, kind, kindred, queue, mankind,
Tortoise, turquoise, chamois-leather,
Reading, Reading, heathen, heather.
This phonetic labyrinth
Gives moss, gross, brook, brooch, ninth, plinth.
Have you ever yet endeavoured
To pronounce revered and severed,
Demon, lemon, ghoul, foul, soul,
Peter, petrol and patrol?
Billet does not end like ballet;
Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
Blood and flood are not like food,
Nor is mould like should and would.
Banquet is not nearly parquet,
Which exactly rhymes with khaki.
Discount, viscount, load and broad,
Toward, to forward, to reward,
Ricocheted and crocheting, croquet?
Right! Your pronunciation’s OK.
Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
Friend and fiend, alive and live.
Is your r correct in higher?
Keats asserts it rhymes Thalia.
Hugh, but hug, and hood, but hoot,
Buoyant, minute, but minute.
Say abscission with precision,
Now: position and transition;
Would it tally with my rhyme
If I mentioned paradigm?
Twopence, threepence, tease are easy,
But cease, crease, grease and greasy?
Cornice, nice, valise, revise,
Rabies, but lullabies.
Of such puzzling words as nauseous,
Rhyming well with cautious, tortious,
You’ll envelop lists, I hope,
In a linen envelope.
Would you like some more? You’ll have it!
Affidavit, David, davit.
To abjure, to perjure. Sheik
Does not sound like Czech but ache.
Liberty, library, heave and heaven,
Rachel, loch, moustache, eleven.
We say hallowed, but allowed,
People, leopard, towed but vowed.
Mark the difference, moreover,
Between mover, plover, Dover.
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
Chalice, but police and lice,
Camel, constable, unstable,
Principle, disciple, label.
Petal, penal, and canal,
Wait, surmise, plait, promise, pal,
Suit, suite, ruin. Circuit, conduit
Rhyme with “shirk it” and “beyond it”,
But it is not hard to tell
Why it’s pall, mall, but Pall Mall.
Muscle, muscular, gaol, iron,
Timber, climber, bullion, lion,
Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
Senator, spectator, mayor,
Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
Has the a of drachm and hammer.
Pussy, hussy and possess,
Desert, but desert, address.
Golf, wolf, countenance, lieutenants
Hoist in lieu of flags left pennants.
Courier, courtier, tomb, bomb, comb,
Cow, but Cowper, some and home.
“Solder, soldier! Blood is thicker”,
Quoth he, “than liqueur or liquor”,
Making, it is sad but true,
In bravado, much ado.
Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Neither does devour with clangour.
Pilot, pivot, gaunt, but aunt,
Font, front, wont, want, grand and grant.
Arsenic, specific, scenic,
Relic, rhetoric, hygienic.
Gooseberry, goose, and close, but close,
Paradise, rise, rose, and dose.
Say inveigh, neigh, but inveigle,
Make the latter rhyme with eagle.
Mind! Meandering but mean,
Valentine and magazine.
And I bet you, dear, a penny,
You say mani-(fold) like many,
Which is wrong. Say rapier, pier,
Tier (one who ties), but tier.
Arch, archangel; pray, does erring
Rhyme with herring or with stirring?
Prison, bison, treasure trove,
Treason, hover, cover, cove,
Perseverance, severance. Ribald
Rhymes (but piebald doesn’t) with nibbled.
Phaeton, paean, gnat, ghat, gnaw,
Lien, psychic, shone, bone, pshaw.
Don’t be down, my own, but rough it,
And distinguish buffet, buffet;
Brood, stood, roof, rook, school, wool, boon,
Worcester, Boleyn, to impugn.
Say in sounds correct and sterling
Hearse, hear, hearken, year and yearling.
Evil, devil, mezzotint,
Mind the z! (A gentle hint.)
Now you need not pay attention
To such sounds as I don’t mention,
Sounds like pores, pause, pours and paws,
Rhyming with the pronoun yours;
Nor are proper names included,
Though I often heard, as you did,
Funny rhymes to unicorn,
Yes, you know them, Vaughan and Strachan.
No, my maiden, coy and comely,
I don’t want to speak of Cholmondeley.
No. Yet Froude compared with proud
Is no better than McLeod.
But mind trivial and vial,
Tripod, menial, denial,
Troll and trolley, realm and ream,
Schedule, mischief, schism, and scheme.
Argil, gill, Argyll, gill. Surely
May be made to rhyme with Raleigh,
But you’re not supposed to say
Piquet rhymes with sobriquet.
Had this invalid invalid
Worthless documents? How pallid,
How uncouth he, couchant, looked,
When for Portsmouth I had booked!
Zeus, Thebes, Thales, Aphrodite,
Paramour, enamoured, flighty,
Acquiesce, and obsequies.
Please don’t monkey with the geyser,
Don’t peel ‘taters with my razor,
Rather say in accents pure:
Nature, stature and mature.
Pious, impious, limb, climb, glumly,
Worsted, worsted, crumbly, dumbly,
Conquer, conquest, vase, phase, fan,
Wan, sedan and artisan.
The TH will surely trouble you
More than R, CH or W.
Say then these phonetic gems:
Thomas, thyme, Theresa, Thames.
Thompson, Chatham, Waltham, Streatham,
There are more but I forget ’em –
Wait! I’ve got it: Anthony,
Lighten your anxiety.
The archaic word albeit
Does not rhyme with eight-you see it;
With and forthwith, one has voice,
One has not, you make your choice.
Shoes, goes, does. Now first say: finger;
Then say: singer, ginger, linger.
Real, zeal, mauve, gauze and gauge,
Marriage, foliage, mirage, age,
Hero, heron, query, very,
Parry, tarry fury, bury,
Dost, lost, post, and doth, cloth, loth,
Job, Job, blossom, bosom, oath.
Faugh, oppugnant, keen oppugners,
Bowing, bowing, banjo-tuners
Holm you know, but noes, canoes,
Puisne, truism, use, to use?
Though the difference seems little,
We say actual, but victual,
Seat, sweat, chaste, caste, Leigh, eight, height,
Put, nut, granite, and unite.
Reefer does not rhyme with deafer,
Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
Dull, bull, Geoffrey, George, ate, late,
Hint, pint, senate, but sedate.
Gaelic, Arabic, pacific,
Science, conscience, scientific;
Tour, but our, dour, succour, four,
Gas, alas, and Arkansas.
Say manoeuvre, yacht and vomit,
Next omit, which differs from it
Bona fide, alibi
Gyrate, dowry and awry.
Sea, idea, guinea, area,
Psalm, Maria, but malaria.
Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean,
Doctrine, turpentine, marine.
Compare alien with Italian,
Dandelion with battalion,
Rally with ally; yea, ye,
Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, key, quay!
Say aver, but ever, fever,
Neither, leisure, skein, receiver.
Never guess – it is not safe,
We say calves, valves, half, but Ralf.
Starry, granary, canary,
Crevice, but device, and eyrie,
Face, but preface, then grimace,
Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.
Bass, large, target, gin, give, verging,
Ought, oust, joust, and scour, but scourging;
Ear, but earn; and ere and tear
Do not rhyme with here but heir.
Mind the o of off and often
Which may be pronounced as orphan,
With the sound of saw and sauce;
Also soft, lost, cloth and cross.
Pudding, puddle, putting. Putting?
Yes: at golf it rhymes with shutting.
Respite, spite, consent, resent.
Liable, but Parliament.
Seven is right, but so is even,
Hyphen, roughen, nephew, Stephen,
Monkey, donkey, clerk and jerk,
Asp, grasp, wasp, demesne, cork, work.
A of valour, vapid vapour,
S of news (compare newspaper),
G of gibbet, gibbon, gist,
I of antichrist and grist,
Differ like diverse and divers,
Rivers, strivers, shivers, fivers.
Once, but nonce, toll, doll, but roll,
Polish, Polish, poll and poll.
Pronunciation – think of Psyche! –
Is a paling, stout and spiky.
Won’t it make you lose your wits
Writing groats and saying “grits”?
It’s a dark abyss or tunnel
Strewn with stones like rowlock, gunwale,
Islington, and Isle of Wight,
Housewife, verdict and indict.
Don’t you think so, reader, rather,
Saying lather, bather, father?
Finally, which rhymes with enough,
Though, through, bough, cough, hough, sough, tough?
Hiccough has the sound of sup…
My advice is: GIVE IT UP!
|abjure||/ əb.ˈdʒʊə /||verb: formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure|
|abscission||/ æb.ˈsɪ.ʒən /||noun: the act of cutting something off; shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant|
|abyss||/ ə.ˈbɪs /||noun: a bottomless gulf or pit; any unfathomable (or apparently unfathomable) cavity or chasm or void extending below (often used figuratively)|
|accent||/ ˈæk.sent /||noun: a diacritical mark used to indicate stress or placed above a vowel to indicate a special pronunciation; distinctive manner of oral expression; the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch); the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people; special importance or significance; verb: put stress on; utter with an accent; to stress, single out as important|
|ache||/ eɪk /||noun: a dull persistent (usually moderately intense) pain; verb: have a desire for something or someone who is not present; be the source of pain; feel physical pain|
|acquiesce||/ ˌæ.kwi.ˈes /||verb: to agree or express agreement|
|admirable||/ ˈæd.mə.rəb.l̩ /||adjective: deserving of the highest esteem or admiration; inspiring admiration or approval|
|ado||/ ə.ˈduː /||noun: a rapid active commotion|
|affidavit||/ ˌæ.fɪ.ˈdeɪ.vɪt /||noun: written declaration made under oath; a written statement sworn to be true before someone legally authorized to administer an oath|
|ague||/ ˈeɪ.ɡjuː /||noun: a fit of shivering or shaking; successive stages of chills and fever that is a symptom of malaria; a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation|
|aisle||/ aɪl /||noun: passageway between seating areas as in an auditorium or passenger vehicle or between areas of shelves of goods as in stores; part of a church divided laterally from the nave proper by rows of pillars or columns; a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)|
|alas||/ ə.ˈlæs /||adverb: by bad luck|
|albeit||/ ˌɔːl.ˈbiːɪt /||conjunction: even though it be, admitting that|
|alibi||/ ˈæ.lə.baɪ /||noun: (law) a defence by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question; a defence of some offensive behaviour or some failure to keep a promise etc.; verb: exonerate by means of an alibi|
|alien||/ ˈeɪ.liən /||adjective: being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world; not contained in or deriving from the essential nature of something; noun: a form of life assumed to exist outside the Earth or its atmosphere; a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country; anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found; verb: transfer property or ownership; arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness|
|anemone||/ ə.ˈne.mə.ni /||noun: any woodland plant of the genus Anemone grown for its beautiful flowers and whorls of dissected leaves; marine polyps that resemble flowers but have oral rings of tentacles; differ from corals in forming no hard skeleton|
|antichrist||/ ˈæn.tɪ.kraɪst /||noun: (Christianity) the adversary of Christ (or Christianity) mentioned in the New Testament; the Antichrist will rule the world until overthrown by the Second Coming of Christ|
|antipodes||/ æn.ˈtɪ.pə.diːz /||noun: any two places or regions on diametrically opposite sides of the Earth|
|arch||/ ɑːtʃ /||adjective: expert in skulduggery; (used of behaviour or attitude) characteristic of those who treat others with condescension; noun: (architecture) a masonry construction (usually curved) for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above it; a passageway under a curved masonry construction; a curved bony structure supporting or enclosing organs (especially the inner sides of the feet); a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening; verb: form an arch or curve|
|archaic||/ ɑːˈk.eɪɪk /||adjective: little evolved from or characteristic of an earlier ancestral type; so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period|
|archangel||/ ˈɑːk.ˌeɪn.dʒəl /||noun: an angel ranked above the highest rank in the celestial hierarchy; a biennial cultivated herb; its stems are candied and eaten and its roots are used medicinally|
|argil||/ ˈɑː.dʒɪl /||noun: a white clay (especially a white clay used by potters)|
|arsenic||/ ˈɑː.snɪk /||noun: a very poisonous metallic element that has three allotropic forms; arsenic and arsenic compounds are used as herbicides and insecticides and various alloys; found in arsenopyrite and orpiment and realgar; a white powdered poisonous trioxide of arsenic; used in manufacturing glass and as a pesticide (rat poison) and weed killer|
|artisan||/ ˌɑː.tɪ.ˈzæn /||noun: a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft|
|asp||/ æsp /||noun: cobra used by the Pharaohs as a symbol of their power over life and death; of southern Europe; similar to but smaller than the adder|
|ass||/ æs /||noun: hardy and sure-footed animal smaller and with longer ears than the horse; a pompous fool; slang for sexual intercourse; the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on|
|assert||/ ə.ˈsɜːt /||verb: state categorically; insist on having one's opinions and rights recognized; assert to be true; to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true|
|aver||/ ə.ˈvɜː /||verb: to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true; report or maintain|
|awry||/ ə.ˈraɪ /||adjective: not functioning properly; turned or twisted toward one side; adverb: away from the correct or expected course; turned or twisted to one side|
|aye||/ aɪ /||interrogative: archaic or dialectical form of yes|
|bade||/ bæd /||noun: a Chadic language spoken in northern Nigeria|
|ballet||/ ˈbæ.leɪ /||noun: a theatrical representation of a story that is performed to music by trained dancers; music written for a ballet|
|balmoral||/ bæl.ˈmɒ.rəl /||noun: a brimless dark blue Scottish cap with a flat top and a plume on one side; a sturdy laced walking shoe|
|banjo||/ ˈbæn.dʒəʊ /||noun: a stringed instrument of the guitar family that has long neck and circular body|
|banquet||/ ˈbæŋ.kwɪt /||noun: a meal that is well prepared and greatly enjoyed; a ceremonial dinner party for many people; verb: partake in a feast or banquet; provide a feast or banquet for|
|bass||/ ˈbeɪs /||adjective: having or denoting a low vocal or instrumental range; noun: nontechnical name for any of numerous edible marine and freshwater spiny-finned fishes; the member with the lowest range of a family of musical instruments; the lowest part of the musical range; the lowest adult male singing voice; the lowest part in polyphonic music; an adult male singer with the lowest voice; any of various North American freshwater fish with lean flesh (especially of the genus Micropterus); the lean flesh of a saltwater fish of the family Serranidae|
|bather||/ ˈbeɪ.ðə /||noun: a person who takes a bath; a person who travels through the water by swimming|
|battalion||/ bə.ˈtæ.ljən /||noun: an army unit usually consisting of a headquarters and three or more companies; a large indefinite number|
|beau||/ bəʊ /||noun: a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman; a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance|
|bier||/ bɪə /||noun: a stand to support a corpse or a coffin prior to burial; a coffin along with its stand|
|billet||/ ˈbɪ.lɪt /||noun: lodging for military personnel (especially in a private home); a job in an organization; a short personal letter; verb: provide housing for (military personnel)|
|bison||/ ˈbaɪs.n̩ /||noun: any of several large humped bovids having shaggy manes and large heads and short horns|
|bleak||/ bliːk /||adjective: unpleasantly cold and damp; offering little or no hope; providing no shelter or sustenance|
|blossom||/ ˈblɒ.səm /||noun: reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colourful parts; the period of greatest prosperity or productivity; verb: develop or come to a promising stage; produce or yield flowers|
|bona-fide||/ ˈbɑː.nə.ˌfaɪd /||adjective: undertaken in good faith; not counterfeit or copied|
|boon||/ buːn /||adjective: very close and convivial; noun: a desirable state|
|bosom||/ ˈbʊ.zəm /||noun: cloth that covers the chest or breasts; a person's breast or chest; the chest considered as the place where secret thoughts are kept; a close affectionate and protective acceptance; either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; the locus of feelings and intuitions; verb: hide in one's bosom; squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness|
|bough||/ baʊ /||noun: any of the larger branches of a tree|
|bouquet||/ bʊˈk.eɪ /||noun: an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present; a pleasingly sweet olfactory property|
|bowing||/ ˈbəʊɪŋ /||adjective: showing an excessively deferential manner; noun: managing the bow in playing a stringed instrument; bending the head or body or knee as a sign of reverence or submission or shame|
|bravado||/ brə.ˈvɑː.dəʊ /||noun: a swaggering show of courage|
|breeches||/ ˈbriː.tʃɪz /||noun: trousers ending above the knee|
|brier||/ ˈbraɪə /||noun: tangled mass of prickly plants; a thorny stem or twig; evergreen treelike Mediterranean shrub having fragrant white flowers in large terminal panicles and hard woody roots used to make tobacco pipes; a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries; Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips|
|brooch||/ brəʊtʃ /||noun: a decorative pin worn by women; verb: fasten with or as if with a brooch|
|brood||/ bruːd /||noun: the young of an animal cared for at one time; verb: sit on (eggs); think moodily or anxiously about something; hang over, as of something threatening, dark, or menacing; be in a huff; be silent or sullen; be in a huff and display one's displeasure|
|brook||/ brʊk /||noun: a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river); verb: put up with something or somebody unpleasant|
|brougham||/ ˈbruːəm /||noun: a sedan that has no roof over the driver's seat; light carriage; pulled by a single horse|
|buffet||/ ˈbʊ.feɪ /||noun: a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers; a meal set out on a buffet at which guests help themselves; usually inexpensive bar; verb: strike, beat repeatedly; strike against forcefully|
|bull||/ bʊl /||noun: a serious and ludicrous blunder; mature male of various mammals of which the female is called `cow'; e.g. whales or elephants or especially cattle; uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle; a formal proclamation issued by the pope (usually written in antiquated characters and sealed with a leaden bulla); a large and strong and heavyset man; an investor with an optimistic market outlook; an investor who expects prices to rise and so buys now for resale later; uncomplimentary terms for a policeman; obscene words for unacceptable behaviour; the centre of a target; the second sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about April 20 to May 20; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Taurus; verb: advance in price; try to raise the price of stocks through speculative buying; push or force; talk through one's hat|
|bullion||/ ˈbʊ.lɪən /||noun: gold or silver in bars or ingots; a mass of precious metal|
|buoyant||/ ˈbɔɪənt /||adjective: characterized by liveliness and light-heartedness; tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas|
|calf||/ kɑːf /||noun: young of domestic cattle; young of various large placental mammals e.g. whale or giraffe or elephant or buffalo; the muscular back part of the shank; fine leather from the skin of a calf|
|camel||/ ˈkæ.məl /||noun: cud-chewing mammal used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions|
|canal||/ kə.ˈnæl /||noun: long and narrow strip of water made for boats or for irrigation; (astronomy) an indistinct surface feature of Mars once thought to be a system of channels; they are now believed to be an optical illusion; a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance; verb: provide (a city) with a canal|
|canary||/ kə.ˈneə.ri /||adjective: having the colour of a canary; of a light to moderate yellow; noun: any of several small Old World finches; a female singer; a moderate yellow with a greenish tinge; someone acting as an informer or decoy for the police|
|canoe||/ kə.ˈnuː /||noun: small and light boat; pointed at both ends; propelled with a paddle; verb: travel by canoe|
|caste||/ kɑːst /||noun: a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth; (Hinduism) a hereditary social class among Hindus; stratified according to ritual purity; social status or position conferred by a system based on class|
|cautious||/ ˈkɔː.ʃəs /||adjective: cautious in attitude and careful in actions; prudent; showing careful forethought; avoiding excess; noun: people who are fearful and cautious|
|chaise||/ ʃeɪz /||noun: a carriage consisting of two wheels and a calash top; drawn by a single horse; a long chair; for reclining|
|chalet||/ ˈʃæ.leɪ /||noun: a Swiss house with a sloping roof and wide eaves or a house built in this style|
|chalice||/ ˈtʃæ.lɪs /||noun: a bowl-shaped drinking vessel; especially the Eucharistic cup|
|chamois-leather||/ ˈʃæ.mɪ le.ðə /||noun: a soft suede leather formerly from the skin of the chamois antelope but now from sheepskin|
|chaos||/ ˈkeɪɒs /||noun: (physics) a dynamical system that is extremely sensitive to its initial conditions; (Greek mythology) the most ancient of gods; the personification of the infinity of space preceding creation of the universe; the formless and disordered state of matter before the creation of the cosmos; a state of extreme confusion and disorder|
|chaste||/ tʃeɪst /||adjective: morally pure (especially not having experienced sexual intercourse); abstaining from unlawful sexual intercourse; pure and simple in design or style|
|choir||/ ˈkwaɪə /||noun: the area occupied by singers; the part of the chancel between sanctuary and nave; a chorus that sings as part of a religious ceremony; a family of similar musical instrument playing together; verb: sing in a choir|
|cigar||/ sɪ.ˈɡɑː /||noun: a roll of tobacco for smoking|
|clamour||/ ˈklæ.mə /||noun: loud and persistent outcry from many people; verb: make loud demands; utter or proclaim insistently and noisily|
|clangour||/ ˈklæŋə /||noun: a loud resonant repeating noise; verb: make a loud resonant noise|
|cleanse||/ klenz /||verb: clean one's body or parts thereof, as by washing; purge of an ideology, bad thoughts, or sins|
|climber||/ ˈklaɪ.mə /||noun: someone who climbs as a sport; especially someone who climbs mountains; a vine or climbing plant that readily grows up a support or over other plants; an iron spike attached to the shoe to prevent slipping on ice when walking or climbing; someone who ascends on foot; someone seeking social prominence by obsequious behaviour|
|comb||/ kəʊm /||noun: the act of drawing a comb through hair; the fleshy red crest on the head of the domestic fowl and other gallinaceous birds; ciliated comb-like swimming plate of a ctenophore; a flat device with narrow pointed teeth on one edge; disentangles or arranges hair; any of several tools for straightening fibres; a fleshy and deeply serrated outgrowth atop the heads of certain birds especially domestic fowl; verb: smoothen and neaten with or as with a comb; search thoroughly; straighten with a comb|
|comely||/ ˈkʌm.li /||adjective: very pleasing to the eye; according with custom or propriety|
|conduit||/ ˈkɒn.dwɪt /||noun: a passage (a pipe or tunnel) through which water or electric wires can pass|
|conquer||/ ˈkɒŋkə /||verb: overcome by conquest; to put down by force or authority; take possession of by force, as after an invasion|
|conquest||/ ˈkɒŋ.kwest /||noun: success in mastering something difficult; the act of conquering; an act of winning the love or sexual favour of someone|
|conscience||/ ˈkɒn.ʃəns /||noun: conformity to one's own sense of right conduct; a feeling of shame when you do something immoral; motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person's thoughts and actions|
|console||/ kən.ˈsəʊl /||noun: an ornamental scroll-shaped bracket (especially one used to support a wall fixture); a scientific instrument consisting of displays and an input device that an operator can use to monitor and control a system (especially a computer system); housing for electronic instruments, as radio or television; a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall; verb: give moral or emotional strength to|
|constable||/ ˈkɒn.stəb.l̩ /||noun: a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff; a police officer of the lowest rank; English landscape painter (1776-1837)|
|cork||/ kɔːk /||noun: the plug in the mouth of a bottle (especially a wine bottle); a port city in southern Ireland; outer bark of the cork oak; used for stoppers for bottles etc.; a small float usually made of cork; attached to a fishing line; (botany) outer tissue of bark; a protective layer of dead cells; verb: stuff with cork; close a bottle with a cork|
|cornice||/ ˈkɔː.nɪs /||noun: the topmost projecting part of an entablature; a moulding at the corner between the ceiling and the top of a wall; a decorative framework to conceal curtain fixtures at the top of a window casing; verb: furnish with a cornice|
|corps||/ kɔːz /||noun: an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support; a body of people associated together|
|corpse||/ kɔːps /||noun: the dead body of a human being|
|couchant||/ ˈkaʊ.tʃənt /||adjective: lying down or crouching, especially of an animal, and especially in heraldry|
|countenance||/ ˈkaʊn.tɪ.nəns /||noun: the appearance conveyed by a person's face; the human face (`kisser' and `smiler' and `mug' are informal terms for `face' and `phiz' is British); formal and explicit approval; verb: consent to, give permission|
|courier||/ ˈkʊ.rɪə /||noun: a person who carries a message|
|courtier||/ ˈkɔː.tɪə /||noun: an attendant at the court of a sovereign|
|cove||/ kəʊv /||noun: a small inlet; small or narrow cave in the side of a cliff or mountain|
|coy||/ kɔɪ /||adjective: modestly or warily rejecting approaches or overtures; showing marked and often playful or irritating evasiveness or reluctance to make a definite or committing statement; affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way|
|crevice||/ ˈkre.vɪs /||noun: a long narrow depression in a surface; a long narrow opening|
|crocheting||/ ˈkrəʊ.ʃeɪ.ɪŋ /||noun: creating a garment of needlework; needlework done by interlocking looped stitches with a hooked needle|
|croquet||/ ˈkrəʊk.eɪ /||noun: a game in which players hit a wooden ball through a series of hoops; the winner is the first to traverse all the hoops and hit a peg; verb: play a game in which players hit a wooden ball through a series of hoops; drive away by hitting with one's ball, "croquet the opponent's ball"|
|crumbly||/ ˈkrʌm.bli /||adjective: apt to break into small fragments or disintegrate|
|dandelion||/ ˈdæn.dɪ.laɪən /||noun: any of several herbs of the genus Taraxacum having long tap roots and deeply notched leaves and bright yellow flowers followed by fluffy seed balls|
|davit||/ ˈdæ.vɪt /||noun: a crane-like device (usually one of a pair) for suspending or lowering equipment (as a lifeboat)|
|dearest||/ ˈdɪə.rɪst /||noun: a beloved person; used as terms of endearment|
|demesne||/ dɪ.ˈmeɪn /||noun: territory over which rule or control is exercised; extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use|
|demon||/ ˈdiː.mən /||noun: someone extremely diligent or skilful; one of the evil spirits of traditional Jewish and Christian belief; a cruel wicked and inhuman person|
|denial||/ dɪ.ˈnaɪəl /||noun: the act of asserting that something alleged is not true; the act of refusing to comply (as with a request); (psychiatry) a defence mechanism that denies painful thoughts; renunciation of your own interests in favour of the interests of others; a defendant's answer or plea denying the truth of the charges against him|
|desirable||/ dɪ.ˈzaɪə.rəb.l̩ /||adjective: worth having or seeking or achieving; worthy of being chosen especially as a spouse|
|devour||/ dɪ.ˈvaʊə /||verb: eat greedily; eat immoderately; destroy completely; enjoy avidly|
|disciple||/ dɪ.ˈsaɪp.l̩ /||noun: someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another|
|divers||/ ˈdaɪ.vəz /||adjective: many and different|
|dizzy||/ ˈdɪ.zi /||adjective: having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling; lacking seriousness; given to frivolity; verb: make dizzy or giddy|
|doctrine||/ ˈdɒk.trɪn /||noun: a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school|
|doll||/ dɒl /||noun: a small replica of a person; used as a toy; informal terms for a (young) woman|
|donkey||/ ˈdɒŋk.i /||noun: the symbol of the Democratic Party; introduced in cartoons by Thomas Nast in 1874; domestic beast of burden descended from the African wild ass; patient but stubborn|
|dose||/ dəʊs /||noun: a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time; the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time; street name for lysergic acid diethylamide; a communicable infection transmitted by sexual intercourse or genital contact; verb: treat with an agent; add (an agent) to; administer a drug to|
|dost||/ dʌst /||verb: archaic form of 2nd person singular present simple of the auxiliary verb:, do|
|doth||/ dʌθ /||verb: archaic form of 3rd person present simple of the auxiliary verb:, do|
|dour||/ dʊə /||adjective: harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance; showing a brooding ill humour; stubbornly unyielding|
|dover||/ ˈdəʊ.və /||noun: the capital of the state of Delaware|
|dowry||/ ˈdaʊə.ri /||noun: money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage|
|drachm||/ dræm /||noun: a unit of capacity or volume in the apothecary system equal to one eighth of a fluid ounce; a British imperial capacity measure (liquid or dry) equal to 60 minims or 3.5516 cubic centimetres; a unit of apothecary weight equal to an eighth of an ounce or to 60 grains|
|dumbly||/ ˈdʌm.li /||adverb: in an inarticulate manner; in a stupid manner|
|eagle||/ ˈiːɡ.l̩ /||noun: any of various large keen-sighted diurnal birds of prey noted for their broad wings and strong soaring flight; an emblem representing power; a former gold coin in the United States worth 10 dollars; (golf) a score of two strokes under par on a hole; verb: shoot in two strokes under par|
|enamour||/ ɪ.ˈnæ.mə /||verb: attract; cause to be enamoured|
|endeavour||/ ɪn.ˈde.və /||noun: earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something; a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness); verb: attempt by employing effort|
|envelop||/ ɪn.ˈve.ləp /||verb: enclose or enfold completely with or as if with a covering|
|episode||/ ˈe.pɪ.səʊd /||noun: a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series; a part of a broadcast serial; a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events; film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie|
|ere||/ eə /||adverb:, prep., conjunction: archaic term for earlier or before|
|erring||/ ˈɜːr.ɪŋ /||adjective: capable of making an error|
|eyrie||/ ˈeə.ri /||noun: any habitation at a high altitude; the lofty nest of a bird of prey (such as a hawk or eagle)|
|feoffer||/ ˈfɛfə /||noun: a legal term denoting a person to whom is given a freehold estate in land|
|fiend||/ fiːnd /||noun: one of the evil spirits of traditional Jewish and Christian belief; a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause); a cruel wicked and inhuman person|
|fiver||/ ˈfaɪ.və /||noun: a paper note of five pounds sterling|
|flighty||/ ˈflaɪ.ti /||adjective: guided by whim and fancy; unpredictably excitable (especially of horses)|
|foliage||/ ˈfəʊl.iɪdʒ /||noun: (architecture) leaf-like architectural ornament; the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants|
|font||/ fɒnt /||noun: a specific size and style of type within a type family; bowl for baptismal water|
|forthwith||/ ˌfɔːθ.ˈwɪθ /||adverb: without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening|
|foul||/ faʊl /||adjective: (of a baseball) not hit between the foul lines; especially of a ship's lines etc; disgustingly dirty; filled or smeared with offensive matter; characterized by obscenity; violating accepted standards or rules; offensively malodorous; (of a manuscript) defaced with changes; highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust; noun: an act that violates of the rules of a sport; verb: become soiled and dirty; make unclean; spot, stain, or pollute; commit a foul; break the rules; hit a foul ball; make impure; become or cause to become obstructed|
|fraud||/ frɔːd /||noun: something intended to deceive; deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage; intentional deception resulting in injury to another person; a person who makes deceitful pretences|
|fuchsia||/ ˈfjuː.ʃə /||noun: a dark purple-red; the dye was discovered in 1859, the year of the battle of Magenta; any of various tropical shrubs widely cultivated for their showy drooping purplish or reddish or white flowers; Central and South America and New Zealand and Tahiti|
|fury||/ ˈfjʊə.ri /||noun: a feeling of intense anger; (classical mythology) the hideous snake-haired monsters (usually three in number) who pursued unpunished criminals; the property of being wild or turbulent; state of violent mental agitation|
|gaol||/ dʒeɪl /||noun: a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence); verb: lock up or confine, in or as in a jail|
|gauge||/ ɡeɪdʒ /||noun: a measuring instrument for measuring and indicating a quantity such as the thickness of wire or the amount of rain etc.; the thickness of wire; the distance between the rails of a railway or between the wheels of a train; accepted or approved instance or example of a quantity or quality against which others are judged or measured or compared; diameter of a tube or gun barrel; verb: mix in specific proportions; adapt to a specified measurement; measure precisely and against a standard; determine the capacity, volume, or contents of by measurement and calculation; rub to a uniform size; judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)|
|gaunt||/ ɡɔːnt /||adjective: very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold|
|gauze||/ ɡɔːz /||noun: a net of transparent fabric with a loose open weave; (medicine) bleached cotton cloth of plain weave used for bandages and dressings|
|gem||/ dʒem /||noun: art highly prized for its beauty or perfection; a crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewellery; a precious or semiprecious stone incorporated into a piece of jewellery; a sweet quick bread baked in a cup-shaped pan; a person who is a brilliant and precious as a piece of jewellery|
|geyser||/ ˈɡiː.zə /||noun: a spring that discharges hot water and steam; verb: to overflow like a geyser|
|ghat||/ ɡɔːt /||noun: stairway in India leading down to a landing on the water|
|ghoul||/ ɡuːl /||noun: an evil spirit or ghost; someone who takes bodies from graves and sells them for anatomical dissection|
|gibbet||/ ˈdʒɪ.bɪt /||noun: alternative terms for gallows; verb: hang on an execution instrument; expose to ridicule or public scorn|
|gibbon||/ ˈɡɪ.bən /||noun: smallest and most perfectly anthropoid arboreal ape having long arms and no tail; of southern Asia and East Indies; English historian best known for his history of the Roman Empire (1737-1794)|
|gill||/ ɡɪl /||noun: respiratory organ of aquatic animals that breathe oxygen dissolved in water; any of the radiating leaflike spore-producing structures on the underside of the cap of a mushroom or similar fungus; a United States liquid unit equal to 4 fluid ounces; a British imperial capacity unit (liquid or dry) equal to 5 fluid ounces or 142.066 cubic centimetres|
|gin||/ dʒɪn /||noun: a form of rummy in which a player can go out if the cards remaining in their hand total less than 10 points; strong liquor flavoured with juniper berries; a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibres; a trap for birds or small mammals; often has a slip noose; verb: trap with a snare; separate the seeds from (cotton) with a cotton gin|
|ginger||/ ˈdʒɪn.dʒə /||adjective: (used especially of hair or fur) having a bright orange-brown colour; noun: pungent rhizome of the common ginger plant; used fresh as a seasoning especially in Oriental cookery; dried ground gingerroot; perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reed like stems; liveliness and energy; verb: add ginger to in order to add flavour|
|gist||/ dʒɪst /||noun: the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work|
|glumly||/ ˈɡlʌm.li /||adverb: in a sullen manner|
|gnat||/ næt /||noun: (British usage) mosquito; any of various small biting flies: midges; biting midges; black flies; sand flies|
|gnaw||/ nɔː /||verb: bite or chew on with the teeth; become ground down or deteriorate|
|goose||/ ɡuːs /||noun: web-footed long-necked typically gregarious migratory aquatic birds usually larger and less aquatic than ducks; flesh of a goose (domestic or wild); a man who is a stupid incompetent fool; verb: give a spurt of fuel to; prod into action; pinch in the buttocks|
|gooseberry||/ ˈɡʊz.bə.ri /||noun: currant-like berry used primarily in jams and jellies; spiny Eurasian shrub having greenish purple-tinged flowers and ovoid yellow-green or red-purple berries|
|granary||/ ˈɡræ.nə.ri /||noun: a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed|
|granite||/ ˈɡræ.nɪt /||noun: something having the quality of granite (unyielding firmness); plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar and mica and quartz|
|grasp||/ ɡrɑːsp /||noun: the act of grasping; a firm controlling influence; the limit of capability; understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something; verb: hold firmly; get the meaning of something|
|grease||/ ɡriːs /||noun: a thick fatty oil (especially one used to lubricate machinery); the state of being covered with unclean things; verb: lubricate with grease|
|greasy||/ ˈɡriː.si /||adjective: smeared or soiled with grease or oil; containing an unusual amount of grease or oil|
|grieve||/ ˈɡriːv /||verb: feel grief; eat one's heart out; cause to feel sorrow|
|grimace||/ ɡrɪ.ˈmeɪs /||noun: a contorted facial expression; verb: contort the face to indicate a certain mental or emotional state|
|grist||/ ɡrɪst /||noun: grain intended to be or that has been ground|
|grits||/ ɡrɪts /||noun: coarsely ground hulled corn boiled as a breakfast dish in the southern United States|
|groat||/ ɡrəʊt /||noun: a former English silver coin worth four pennies|
|guinea||/ ˈɡɪ.ni /||noun: a republic in western Africa on the Atlantic; formerly a French colony; achieved independence from France in 1958; a former British gold coin worth 21 shillings; a west African bird having dark plumage mottled with white; native to Africa but raised for food in many parts of the world; offensive terms for a person of Italian descent|
|gunwale||/ ˈɡʌn.l̩ /||noun: wale at the top of the side of boat; topmost planking of a wooden vessel|
|gush||/ ɡʌʃ /||noun: an unrestrained expression of emotion; a sudden rapid flow (as of water); verb: praise enthusiastically; issue in a jet; come out in a jet; stream or spring forth; gush forth in a sudden stream or jet|
|gyrate||/ ˌdʒaɪ.ˈreɪt /||verb: to wind or move in a spiral course; revolve quickly and repeatedly around one's own axis|
|hallowed||/ ˈhæ.ləʊd /||adjective: worthy of religious veneration|
|hearken||/ ˈhɑːkən /||verb: listen; used mostly in the imperative|
|hearse||/ hɜːs /||noun: a vehicle for carrying a coffin to a church or a cemetery; formerly drawn by horses but now usually a motor vehicle|
|heathen||/ ˈhiːð.n̩ /||adjective: not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam; noun: a person who does not acknowledge your god|
|heather||/ ˈhe.ðə /||noun: common Old World heath represented by many varieties; low evergreen grown widely in the northern hemisphere; interwoven yarns of mixed colours producing muted greyish shades with flecks of colour|
|heave||/ hiːv /||noun: throwing something heavy (with great effort); an involuntary spasm of ineffectual vomiting; the act of lifting something with great effort; (geology) a horizontal dislocation; an upward movement (especially a rhythmical rising and falling); the act of raising something; verb: bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat; utter a sound, as with obvious effort; lift or elevate; throw with great effort; move or cause to move in a specified way, direction, or position; breathe noisily, as when one is exhausted; make an unsuccessful effort to vomit; strain to vomit; rise and move, as in waves or billows|
|heifer||/ ˈhe.fə /||noun: young cow|
|heir||/ eə /||noun: a person who is entitled by law or by the terms of a will to inherit the estate of another; a person who inherits some title or office|
|heron||/ ˈhe.rən /||noun: grey or white wading bird with long neck and long legs and (usually) long bill; Greek mathematician and inventor who devised a way to determine the area of a triangle and who described various mechanical devices (first century)|
|herring||/ ˈher.ɪŋ /||noun: commercially important food fish of northern waters of both Atlantic and Pacific; valuable flesh of fatty fish from shallow waters of northern Atlantic or Pacific; usually salted or pickled|
|hiccough||/ ˈhɪkʌp /||noun: (usually plural) the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis producing an audible sound; sometimes a symptom of indigestion; verb: breathe spasmodically, and make a sound|
|higher||/ ˈhaɪə /||adjective: of education beyond the secondary level; advanced in complexity or elaboration|
|hint||/ hɪnt /||noun: a slight indication; an indirect suggestion; an indication of potential opportunity; a just detectable amount; a slight but appreciable addition; verb: drop a hint; intimate by a hint|
|hoist||/ hɔɪst /||noun: lifting device for raising heavy or cumbersome objects; verb: raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help; raise; move from one place to another by lifting|
|holly||/ ˈhɒ.li /||noun: any tree or shrub of the genus Ilex having red berries and shiny evergreen leaves with prickly edges|
|holm||/ ˈhom /||noun: a small island or a piece of flat, low-lying land near a river or stream which is often submerged or surrounded in times of flood|
|hood||/ hʊd /||noun: protective covering consisting of a metal part that covers the engine; a headdress that protects the head and face; the folding roof of a carriage; metal covering leading to a vent that exhausts smoke or fumes; an aggressive and violent young criminal; verb: cover with a hood|
|hoot||/ huːt /||noun: a loud raucous cry (as of an owl); something of little value; a cry or noise made to express displeasure or contempt; verb: to utter a loud clamorous shout; utter the characteristic sound of owls|
|housewife||/ ˈhaʊs.waɪf /||noun: a wife who manages a household while her husband earns the family income|
|hover||/ ˈhɒ.və /||verb: hang in the air; fly or be suspended above; move to and fro; be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action; be suspended in the air, as if in defiance of gravity; hang over, as of something threatening, dark, or menacing|
|hug||/ hʌɡ /||noun: a tight or amorous embrace; verb: fit closely or tightly; squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness|
|hussy||/ ˈhʌ.si /||noun: a woman adulterer|
|hygienic||/ haɪ.ˈdʒiː.nɪk /||adjective: tending to promote or preserve health|
|hyphen||/ ˈhaɪf.n̩ /||noun: a punctuation mark (-) used between parts of a compound word or between the syllables of a word when the word is divided at the end of a line of text; verb: divide or connect with a hyphen|
|impious||/ ˈɪm.pɪəs /||adjective: lacking piety or reverence for a god; lacking piety and reverence for a god; lacking due respect or dutifulness|
|impugn||/ ɪm.ˈpjuːn /||verb: attack as false or wrong|
|included||/ ɪn.ˈkluː.dɪd /||adjective: enclosed in the same envelope or package|
|indict||/ ɪn.ˈdaɪt /||verb: accuse formally of a crime|
|invalid||/ ɪn.ˈvæ.lɪd /||adjective: no longer valid; having no cogency or legal force; noun: someone who is incapacitated by a chronic illness or injury; verb: force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen; injure permanently|
|inveigh||/ ɪn.ˈveɪ /||verb: speak against in an impassioned manner; complain bitterly|
|inveigle||/ ɪn.ˈveɪɡ.l̩ /||verb: influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering|
|isle||/ aɪl /||noun: a small island|
|ivy||/ ˈaɪ.vi /||noun: Old World vine with lobed evergreen leaves and black berrylike fruits|
|jerk||/ dʒɜːk /||noun: an abrupt spasmodic movement; raising a weight from shoulder height to above the head by straightening the arms; a dull stupid fatuous person; (mechanics) the rate of change of acceleration; a sudden abrupt pull; meat (especially beef) cut in strips and dried in the sun; verb: throw or toss with a quick motion; move with abrupt, seemingly uncontrolled motions; make an uncontrolled, short, jerky motion; pull, or move with a sudden movement; jump vertically, with legs stiff and back arched|
|joust||/ dʒaʊst /||noun: a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with blunted lances; verb: joust against somebody in a tournament by fighting on horseback|
|khaki||/ ˈkɑːk.i /||adjective: of a yellowish brown colour; noun: a sturdy twilled cloth of a yellowish brown colour used especially for military uniforms|
|kindred||/ ˈkɪn.drɪd /||adjective: related by blood or marriage; similar or related in quality or character; noun: group of people related by blood or marriage|
|labyrinth||/ ˈlæ.bə.rɪnθ /||noun: complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost; a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium|
|laid||/ leɪd /||adjective: set down according to a plan: "a carefully laid table with places set for four people"|
|lather||/ ˈlɑː.ðə /||noun: the foam resulting from excessive sweating (as on a horse); a workman who puts up laths; the froth produced by soaps or detergents; agitation resulting from active worry; verb: form a lather; cover with soap; rub soap all over, usually with the purpose of cleaning; beat severely with a whip or rod|
|laughter||/ ˈlɑːf.tə /||noun: the activity of laughing; the manifestation of joy or mirth or scorn; the sound of laughing|
|laundry||/ ˈlɔːn.dri /||noun: workplace where clothes are washed and ironed; garments or white goods that can be cleaned by laundering|
|laurel||/ ˈlɒ.rəl /||noun: (antiquity) a wreath of laurel foliage worn on the head as an emblem of victory; any of various aromatic trees of the laurel family|
|leech||/ liːtʃ /||noun: carnivorous or bloodsucking aquatic or terrestrial worms typically having a sucker at each end; a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage; verb: draw blood|
|leigh||/ liː /||noun: English film actress (1913-1967)|
|leopard||/ ˈle.pəd /||noun: large feline of African and Asian forests usually having a tawny coat with black spots; the pelt of a leopard|
|liable||/ ˈlaɪəb.l̩ /||adjective: held legally responsible; (often followed by `to') likely to be affected with; subject to legal action; at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant|
|liberty||/ ˈlɪb.ət.i /||noun: freedom of choice; personal freedom from servitude or confinement or oppression; an act of undue intimacy; immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence; leave granted to a sailor or naval officer|
|louse||/ laʊs /||noun: wingless usually flattened bloodsucking insect parasitic on warm-blooded animals; wingless insect with mouth parts adapted for biting; mostly parasitic on birds; any of several small insects especially aphids that feed by sucking the juices from plants; a person who has a nasty or unethical character undeserving of respect|
|lichen||/ ˈlaɪkən /||noun: any thallophytic plant of the division Lichenes; occur as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks or rocks or bare ground etc.; any of several eruptive skin diseases characterized by hard thick lesions grouped together and resembling lichens growing on rocks|
|lien||/ lɪən /||noun: the right to take another's property if an obligation is not discharged; a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses|
|lieu||/ luː /||noun: the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another|
|lieutenant||/ lef.ˈte.nənt /||noun: an officer in a police force; a commissioned military officer; an assistant with power to act when his superior is absent|
|lighten||/ ˈlaɪt.n̩ /||verb: become lighter; become more cheerful; reduce the weight on; make lighter; make more cheerful; alleviate or remove (pressure or stress) or make less oppressive; become brighter; make lighter or brighter|
|limb||/ lɪm /||noun: the graduated arc that is attached to an instrument for measuring angles; either of the two halves of a bow from handle to tip; one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper; (astronomy) the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of the sun or the moon or a planet; any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree; any projection that is thought to resemble a human arm|
|linen||/ ˈlɪ.nɪn /||noun: white goods or clothing made with linen cloth; a fabric woven with fibres from the flax plant; a high-quality paper made of linen fibres or with a linen finish|
|linger||/ ˈlɪŋ.ɡə /||verb: take one's time; proceed slowly; remain present although waning or gradually dying; leave slowly and hesitantly; be about; move to and fro|
|lion||/ ˈlaɪən /||noun: large gregarious predatory feline of Africa and India having a tawny coat with a shaggy mane in the male; a celebrity who is lionized (much sought after); the fifth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about July 23 to August 22; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Leo|
|liqueur||/ lɪ.ˈkjʊə /||noun: strong highly flavoured sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal|
|liquor||/ ˈlɪkə /||noun: the liquid in which vegetables or meat have be cooked; an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented; a liquid substance that is a solution (or emulsion or suspension) used or obtained in an industrial process|
|loch||/ lɒk /||noun: Scottish word for a lake; a long narrow inlet of the sea in Scotland (especially when it is nearly landlocked)|
|loth||/ ləʊθ /||adjective: (usually followed by `to') strongly opposed; unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom|
|lullaby||/ ˈlʌ.lə.baɪ /||noun: a quiet song that lulls a child to sleep; a quiet song intended to lull a child to sleep|
|lumber||/ ˈlʌm.bə /||noun: the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material; an implement used in baseball by the batter; verb: move heavily or clumsily; cut lumber, as in woods and forests|
|maiden||/ ˈmeɪd.n̩ /||adjective: serving to set in motion; noun: an unmarried girl (especially a virgin); (cricket) an over in which no runs are scored|
|malaria||/ mə.ˈleə.rɪə /||noun: an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever|
|mallet||/ ˈmæ.lɪt /||noun: a tool resembling a hammer but with a large head (usually wooden); used to drive wedges or ram down paving stones or for crushing or beating or flattening or smoothing; a light drumstick with a rounded head that is used to strike percussion instruments; a sports implement with a long handle and a head like a hammer; used in sports (polo or croquet) to hit a ball|
|manifold||/ ˈmæ.nɪ.fəʊld /||adjective: many and varied; having many features or forms; noun: a pipe that has several lateral outlets to or from other pipes; a set of points such as those of a closed surface or an analogue in three or more dimensions; a lightweight paper used with carbon paper to make multiple copies; verb: make multiple copies of; combine or increase by multiplication|
|mankind||/ ˌmænˈk.aɪnd /||noun: all of the living human inhabitants of the earth|
|manoeuvre||/ mə.ˈnuː.və /||noun: an action aimed at evading an opponent; a move made to gain a tactical end; a deliberate coordinated movement requiring dexterity and skill; a military training exercise; a plan for attaining a particular goal; verb: perform a movement in military or naval tactics in order to secure an advantage in attack or defence; direct the course; determine the direction of travelling; act in order to achieve a certain goal|
|maria||/ mə.ˈriːə /||noun: valuable timber tree of Panama; a dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon|
|marine||/ mə.ˈriːn /||adjective: native to or inhabiting the sea; of or relating to the sea; of or relating to military personnel who serve both on land and at sea (specifically the U.S. Marine Corps); relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen; noun: a soldier who serves both on shipboard and on land|
|mature||/ mə.ˈtjʊə /||adjective: fully considered and perfected; having reached full natural growth or development; characteristic of maturity; (of birds) having developed feathers or plumage; often used in combination; fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used; verb: develop and reach maturity; undergo maturation; become due for repayment; develop and work out fully in one's mind; cause to ripen and discharge pus; grow old or older; cause to ripen or develop fully|
|mauve||/ məʊv /||adjective: of a pale to moderate greyish violet colour; noun: a moderate purple|
|meandering||/ mɪ.ˈæn.dər.ɪŋ /||adjective: of a path e.g.|
|measles||/ ˈmiːz.l̩z /||noun: an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children|
|menial||/ ˈmiː.nɪəl /||adjective: used of unskilled work (especially domestic work); noun: a domestic servant|
|mezzotint||/ ˈmet.səʊ.tɪnt /||noun: print produced by an engraving that has been scraped to represent light or shade|
|mica||/ ˈmaɪk.ə /||noun: any of various minerals consisting of hydrous silicates of aluminium or potassium etc. that crystallize in forms that allow perfect cleavage into very thin leaves; used as dielectrics because of their resistance to electricity|
|mining||/ ˈmaɪn.ɪŋ /||noun: the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth; laying explosive mines in concealed places to destroy enemy personnel and equipment|
|mirage||/ ˈmɪ.rɑːʒ /||noun: something illusory and unattainable; an optical illusion in which atmospheric refraction by a layer of hot air distorts or inverts reflections of distant objects|
|mischief||/ ˈmɪs.tʃɪf /||noun: reckless or malicious behaviour that causes discomfort or annoyance in others; the quality or nature of being harmful or evil|
|missile||/ ˈmɪ.saɪl /||noun: a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control; a weapon that is forcibly thrown or projected at a targets but is not self-propelled|
|monkey||/ ˈmʌŋk.i /||noun: any of various long-tailed primates (excluding the prosimians); one who is playfully mischievous; verb: do random, unplanned work or activities or spend time idly; play around with or alter or falsify, usually secretively or dishonestly|
|moss||/ mɒs /||noun: tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants|
|mould||/ məʊld /||noun: container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens; sculpture produced by moulding; a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter; loose soil rich in organic matter; verb: make something, usually for a specific function; form by pouring (e.g., wax or hot metal) into a cast or mould; form in clay, wax, etc|
|moustache||/ mə.ˈstɑːʃ /||noun: an unshaved growth of hair on the upper lip|
|mover||/ ˈmuː.və /||noun: a company that moves the possessions of a family or business from one site to another; someone who moves; workman employed by a moving company; (parliamentary procedure) someone who makes a formal motion|
|muscular||/ ˈmʌ.skjʊ.lə /||adjective: having or suggesting great physical power or force; of or relating to or consisting of muscle; having a robust muscular body-build characterized by predominance of structures (bone and muscle and connective tissue) developed from the embryonic mesodermal layer; (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful|
|names||/ ˈneɪmz /||noun: verbal abuse; a crude substitute for argument|
|nauseous||/ ˈnɔː.sɪəs /||adjective: feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit; causing or able to cause nausea|
|neigh||/ neɪ /||noun: the characteristic sounds made by a horse; verb: make a characteristic sound, of a horse|
|nibble||/ ˈnɪb.l̩ /||noun: gentle biting; a small byte; verb: eat intermittently; take small bites of; bite gently; bite off very small pieces|
|ninth||/ naɪnθ /||adjective: coming next after the eighth and just before the tenth in position; noun: position nine in a countable series of things; one part in nine equal parts|
|nonce||/ nɒns /||noun: the present occasion|
|oath||/ əʊθ /||noun: a commitment to tell the truth (especially in a court of law); to lie under oath is to become subject to prosecution for perjury; a solemn promise, usually invoking a divine witness, regarding your future acts or behaviour; profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger|
|obsequies||/ ˈɒb.sɪ.kwɪz /||noun: (always plural) funeral rites or ceremonies|
|omit||/ ə.ˈmɪt /||verb: leave undone or leave out; prevent from being included or considered or accepted|
|oppugnant||/ əˈpʌgnənt /||adjective: opposing, antagonistic, contrary, repugnant|
|oppugner||/ əˈpjuːnə /||noun: one who challenges the accuracy, probity, or propriety of something|
|orphan||/ ˈɔːf.n̩ /||adjective: deprived of parents by death or desertion; noun: a young animal without a mother; the first line of a paragraph that is set as the last line of a page or column; a child who has lost both parents; someone or something who lacks support or care or supervision; verb: deprive of parents|
|oust||/ aʊst /||verb: remove from a position or office; remove and replace|
|pacific||/ pə.ˈsɪ.fɪk /||adjective: promoting peace; disposed to peace or of a peaceful nature; relating to or bordering the Pacific Ocean; noun: the largest ocean in the world|
|paean||/ ˈpiːən /||noun: (ancient Greece) a hymn of praise (especially one sung in ancient Greece to invoke or thank a deity); a formal expression of praise|
|paid||/ peɪd /||adjective: marked by the reception of pay; involving gainful employment in something often done as a hobby; yielding a fair profit|
|pal||/ pæl /||noun: a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities; verb: become friends; act friendly towards|
|paling||/ ˈpeɪl.ɪŋ /||noun: a fence made of upright pickets|
|pall||/ pɔːl /||noun: burial garment in which a corpse is wrapped; hanging cloth used as a blind (especially for a window); a sudden numbing dread; verb: lose strength or effectiveness; become or appear boring, insipid, or tiresome (to); become less interesting or attractive; cause to become flat; cover with a pall; get tired of something or somebody; lose sparkle or bouquet; cause surfeit through excess though initially pleasing; cause to lose courage|
|pallid||/ ˈpæ.lɪd /||adjective: abnormally deficient in colour as suggesting physical or emotional distress; lacking in vitality or interest or effectiveness; (of light) lacking in intensity or brightness; dim or feeble|
|paradigm||/ ˈpæ.rə.daɪm /||noun: the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time; systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word; a standard or typical example; the class of all items that can be substituted into the same position (or slot) in a grammatical sentence (are in paradigmatic relation with one another)|
|paradise||/ ˈpæ.rə.daɪs /||noun: (Christianity) the abode of righteous souls after death; any place of complete bliss and delight and peace|
|paramour||/ ˈpæ.rə.mʊə /||noun: a woman who cohabits with an important man; a woman's lover|
|parquet||/ ˈpɑːk.eɪ /||noun: seating on the main floor between the orchestra and the parquet circle; a floor made of parquetry|
|parry||/ ˈpæ.ri /||noun: (fencing) blocking a lunge or deflecting it with a circular motion of the sword; a return punch (especially by a boxer); verb: impede the movement of (an opponent or a ball); avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues)|
|patrol||/ pə.ˈtrəʊl /||noun: the activity of going around or through an area at regular intervals for security purposes; a detachment used for security or reconnaissance; a group that goes through a region at regular intervals for the purpose of security; verb: maintain the security of by carrying out a control|
|paw||/ pɔː /||noun: a clawed foot of an animal especially a quadruped; the (prehensile) extremity of the superior limb; verb: touch clumsily; scrape with the paws|
|peel||/ piːl /||noun: the rind of a fruit or vegetable; British politician (1788-1850); the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit); verb: get undressed; come off in flakes or thin small pieces; strip the skin off|
|penal||/ ˈpiːn.l̩ /||adjective: subject to punishment by law; serving as or designed to impose punishment; of or relating to punishment|
|pennant||/ ˈpe.nənt /||noun: a long flag; often tapering; the award given to the champion; a flag longer than it is wide (and often tapering)|
|perjure||/ ˈpɜː.dʒə /||verb: knowingly tell an untruth in a legal court and render oneself guilty of perjury|
|perseverance||/ ˌpɜː.sɪ.ˈvɪə.rəns /||noun: the act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behaviour; persistent determination|
|petal||/ ˈpet.l̩ /||noun: part of the perianth that is usually brightly coloured|
|peter||/ ˈpiː.tə /||noun: disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope; obscene terms for penis|
|phaeton||/ ˈfeɪt.n̩ /||noun: large open car seating four with folding top|
|phlegm||/ flem /||noun: expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages; in ancient and medieval physiology it was believed to cause sluggishness; inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy; apathy demonstrated by an absence of emotional reactions|
|phlegmatic||/ fleɡ.ˈmæ.tɪk /||adjective: showing little emotion|
|phonetic||/ fə.ˈne.tɪk /||adjective: of or relating to the scientific study of speech sounds; of or relating to speech sounds|
|piebald||/ ˈpaɪ.bɔːld /||adjective: having sections or patches coloured differently and usually brightly|
|pier||/ pɪə /||noun: a platform built out from the shore into the water and supported by piles; provides access to ships and boats; a support for two adjacent bridge spans; (architecture) a vertical supporting structure (as a portion of wall between two doors or windows)|
|pious||/ ˈpaɪəs /||adjective: having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity; devoutly religious|
|piquet||/ pɪˈket /||noun: a card game for two players using a reduced pack of 32 cards; a form of military punishment used by the British in the late 17th century in which a soldier was forced to stand on one foot on a pointed stake|
|pivot||/ ˈpɪ.vət /||noun: the act of turning on (or as if on) a pivot; axis consisting of a short shaft that supports something that turns; the person in a rank around whom the others wheel and manoeuvre; verb: turn on a pivot|
|plague||/ pleɪɡ /||noun: an annoyance; any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God); any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal; a swarm of insects that attack plants; verb: annoy continually or chronically; cause to suffer a blight|
|plaid||/ plæd /||noun: a cloth having a crisscross design|
|plait||/ plæt /||noun: any of various types of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and then pressing or stitching into shape; a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair; verb: weave into plaits; make by braiding or interlacing|
|plinth||/ plɪnθ /||noun: an architectural support or base (as for a column or statue)|
|plover||/ ˈplʌ.və /||noun: any of numerous chiefly shorebirds of relatively compact build having straight bills and large pointed wings; closely related to the sandpipers|
|plumber||/ ˈplʌ.mə /||noun: a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances|
|pore||/ pɔː /||noun: any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an animal; any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas); a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass; verb: direct one's attention on something|
|pour||/ pɔː /||verb: move in large numbers; flow in a spurt; cause to run; supply in large amounts or quantities; rain heavily; pour out|
|precious||/ ˈpre.ʃəs /||adjective: of high worth or cost; obviously contrived to charm; characterized by feeling or showing fond affection for; adverb: extremely|
|precision||/ prɪ.ˈsɪʒ.n̩ /||noun: the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance|
|preface||/ ˈpre.fɪs /||noun: a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book; verb: furnish with a preface or introduction|
|privy||/ ˈprɪ.vi /||adjective: (followed by `to') informed about something secret or not generally known; hidden from general view or use; noun: a small outbuilding with a bench having holes through which a user can defecate; a room or building equipped with one or more toilets|
|pronoun||/ ˈprəʊ.naʊn /||noun: a function word that is used in place of a noun: or noun: phrase|
|pronounced||/ prə.ˈnaʊnst /||adjective: produced by the organs of speech; strongly marked; easily noticeable|
|pronunciation||/ prə.ˌnʌn.sɪ.ˈeɪʃ.n̩ /||noun: the way a word or a language is customarily spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word|
|psalm||/ sɑːm /||noun: any sacred song used to praise the deity; one of the 150 lyrical poems and prayers that comprise the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament; said to have been written by David; verb: sing or celebrate in psalms|
|pshaw||/ pfə /||interrogative:. expression of rejection, contempt, impatience, or disgust|
|psyche||/ ˈsaɪk.i /||noun: (Greek mythology) a beautiful princess loved by Cupid who visited her at night and told her she must not try to see him; became the personification of the soul; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; the immaterial part of a person; the actuating cause of an individual life|
|psychic||/ ˈsaɪkɪk /||adjective: outside the sphere of physical science; affecting or influenced by the human mind; noun: a person apparently sensitive to things beyond the natural range of perception|
|puddle||/ ˈpʌd.l̩ /||noun: a mixture of wet clay and sand that can be used to line a pond and that is impervious to water when dry; something resembling a pool of liquid; a small body of standing water (rainwater) or other liquid; verb: make a puddle by splashing water; mess around, as in a liquid or paste; work a wet mixture, such as concrete or mud; dip into mud before planting; subject to puddling or form by puddling; wade or dabble in a puddle; eliminate urine; mix up or confuse; make into a puddle|
|puisne||/ ˈpjuː.nɪ /||adjective: legal term denoting younger or junior; noun: one who is born later or appointed later than another|
|pussy||/ ˈpʊ.si /||adjective: "a purulent wound"; noun: informal terms referring to a domestic cat; obscene terms for female genitals|
|putting||/ ˈpʊt.ɪŋ /||noun: hitting a golf ball that is on the green using a putter|
|puzzling||/ ˈpʌz.l̩.ɪŋ /||adjective: lacking clarity of meaning; causing confusion or perplexity; not clear to the understanding|
|quay||/ kiː /||noun: wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline|
|queer||/ kwɪə /||adjective: beyond or deviating from the usual or expected; homosexual or arousing homosexual desires; noun: offensive terms for an openly homosexual man; verb: put in a dangerous, disadvantageous, or difficult position; hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of|
|query||/ ˈkwɪə.ri /||noun: an instance of questioning; verb: pose a question|
|quoth||/ kwəʊθ /||verb: archaic or dialectical form of the past participle form of the verb: say - said|
|rabies||/ ˈreɪ.biːz /||noun: an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain|
|rally||/ ˈræ.li /||noun: the feat of mustering strength for a renewed effort; (sports) an unbroken sequence of several successive strokes; an automobile race run over public roads; a large gathering of people intended to arouse enthusiasm; a marked recovery of strength or spirits during an illness; verb: return to a former condition; harass with persistent criticism or carping; call to arms; of military personnel; gather or bring together; gather|
|ranch||/ rɑːntʃ /||noun: farm consisting of a large tract of land along with facilities needed to raise livestock (especially cattle); verb: manage or run a ranch|
|rapier||/ ˈreɪ.pɪə /||noun: a straight sword with a narrow blade and two edges|
|razor||/ ˈreɪ.zə /||noun: edge tool used in shaving; verb: shave with a razor|
|realm||/ relm /||noun: a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about; the domain ruled by a king or queen; a domain in which something is dominant|
|ream||/ riːm /||noun: a quantity of paper; 480 or 500 sheets; one ream equals 20 quires; a large quantity of written matter; verb: enlarge with a reamer; remove by making a hole or by boring; squeeze the juice out (of a fruit) with a reamer|
|receiver||/ rɪ.ˈsiː.və /||noun: set that receives radio or tv signals; a football player who catches (or is supposed to catch) a forward pass; earphone that converts electrical signals into sounds; a person who gets something; (law) a person (usually appointed by a court of law) who liquidates assets or preserves them for the benefit of affected parties|
|reefer||/ ˈriː.fə /||noun: marijuana leaves rolled into a cigarette for smoking|
|relic||/ ˈre.lɪk /||noun: an antiquity that has survived from the distant past; something of sentimental value|
|renown||/ rɪ.ˈnaʊn /||noun: the state or quality of being widely honoured and acclaimed|
|resent||/ rɪ.ˈzent /||verb: feel bitter or indignant about; wish ill or allow unwillingly|
|respite||/ ˈre.spaɪt /||noun: a pause from doing something (as work); a pause for relaxation; the act of reprieving; postponing or remitting punishment; an interruption in the intensity or amount of something; a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort; verb: postpone the punishment of a convicted criminal, such as an execution|
|revered||/ rɪ.ˈvɪəd /||adjective: profoundly honoured|
|revile||/ rɪ.ˈvaɪl /||verb: spread negative information about|
|rhetoric||/ ˈre.tə.rɪk /||noun: study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking); using language effectively to please or persuade; loud and confused and empty talk; high-flown style; excessive use of verbal ornamentation|
|rhyme||/ raɪm /||noun: correspondence in the sounds of two or more lines (especially final sounds); a piece of poetry; verb: compose rhymes; be similar in sound, especially with respect to the last syllable|
|rhyming||/ ˈraɪm.ɪŋ /||adjective: having corresponding sounds especially terminal sounds|
|ribald||/ ˈrɪ.bəld /||adjective: humorously vulgar; noun: a ribald person; someone who uses vulgar and offensive language|
|ricochet||/ ˈrɪk.ə.ʃeɪ /||noun: a glancing rebound; verb: spring back; spring away from an impact|
|rook||/ rʊk /||noun: common gregarious Old World bird about the size and colour of the American crow; (chess) the piece that can move any number of unoccupied squares in a direction parallel to the sides of the chessboard; verb: deprive of by deceit|
|roughen||/ ˈrʌf.n̩ /||verb: make rough or rougher|
|rowlock||/ ˈrɒ.lək /||noun: a holder attached to the gunwale of a boat that holds the oar in place and acts as a fulcrum for rowing|
|saying||/ ˈseɪ.ɪŋ /||noun: a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations|
|scenic||/ ˈsiː.nɪk /||adjective: used of locations; having beautiful natural scenery; of or relating to the stage or stage scenery|
|schism||/ ˈskɪ.zəm /||noun: division of a group into opposing factions; the formal separation of a church into two churches or the withdrawal of one group over doctrinal differences|
|scour||/ ˈskaʊə /||noun: a place that is scoured (especially by running water); verb: rub hard or scrub; examine minutely; rinse, clean, or empty with a liquid; clean with hard rubbing|
|scourge||/ skɜːdʒ /||noun: a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humour); a person who inspires fear or dread; something causes misery or death; verb: punish severely; excoriate; devastate or ravage; whip|
|sedan||/ sɪ.ˈdæn /||noun: a car that is closed and that has front and rear seats and two or four doors; a closed litter for one passenger|
|sedate||/ sɪ.ˈdeɪt /||adjective: characterized by dignity and propriety; dignified and sombre in manner or character and committed to keeping promises; verb: cause to be calm or quiet as by administering a sedative to|
|seer||/ sɪə /||noun: an observer who perceives visually; an authoritative person who divines the future; a person with unusual powers of foresight|
|severance||/ ˈse.və.rəns /||noun: the act of severing; a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)|
|severed||/ ˈse.vəd /||adjective: detached by cutting|
|sheik||/ ʃeɪk /||noun: the leader of an Arab village or family; a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance|
|shirk||/ ʃɜːk /||verb: avoid dealing with; avoid (one's assigned duties)|
|shiver||/ ˈʃɪ.və /||noun: a reflex motion caused by cold or fear or excitement; an almost pleasurable sensation of fright; verb: shake, as from cold; tremble convulsively, as from fear or excitement|
|shutting||/ ˈʃʌt.ɪŋ /||noun: the act of closing something|
|sieve||/ sɪv /||noun: a strainer for separating lumps from powdered material or grading particles; verb: distinguish and separate out; check and sort carefully; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; examine in order to test suitability|
|simile||/ ˈsɪ.mɪ.li /||noun: a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like' or `as')|
|skein||/ skeɪn /||noun: coils of worsted yarn|
|sobriquet||/ ˈsəʊ.brɪk.eɪ /||noun: a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person's given name)|
|solder||/ ˈsɒl.də /||noun: an alloy (usually of lead and tin) used when melted to join two metal surfaces; verb: join or fuse with solder|
|sough||/ sʌf /||verb: introduce into an environment; indicate pain, discomfort, or displeasure; place (seeds) in or on the ground for future growth|
|spectator||/ spek.ˈteɪ.tə /||noun: a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind); a woman's pump with medium heel; usually in contrasting colours for toe and heel|
|spiky||/ ˈspaɪk.i /||adjective: having or as if having especially high-pitched spots|
|starry||/ ˈstɑː.ri /||adjective: abounding with or resembling stars|
|stature||/ ˈstæ.tʃə /||noun: (of a standing person) the distance from head to foot; high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement|
|sterling||/ ˈstɜːl.ɪŋ /||adjective: highest in quality; noun: British money; especially the pound sterling as the basic monetary unit of the UK|
|stirring||/ ˈstɜːr.ɪŋ /||adjective: exciting strong but not unpleasant emotions; capable of arousing enthusiasm or excitement; noun: agitating a liquid with an implement; arousing to a particular emotion or action|
|stout||/ staʊt /||adjective: euphemisms for `fat'; dependable; having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships; noun: a garment size for a large or heavy person; a strong very dark heavy-bodied ale made from pale malt and roasted unmalted barley and (often) caramel malt with hops|
|streak||/ striːk /||noun: a distinctive characteristic; a sudden flash (as of lightning); an unbroken series of events; a marking of a different colour or texture from the background; verb: run naked in a public place; move quickly in a straight line; mark with spots or blotches of different colour or shades of colour as if stained|
|strew||/ struː /||verb: cover; be dispersed over; spread by scattering ("straw" is archaic)|
|striver||/ ˈstraɪ.və /||noun: someone who works as hard as a slave|
|studding-sail||/ ˈstʌ.dɪŋ.seɪl /||noun: a type of sail on a sailing ship or boat|
|studying||/ ˈstʌ.dɪ.ɪŋ /||noun: reading carefully with intent to remember|
|succour||/ ˈsʌkə /||noun: assistance in time of difficulty; verb: help in a difficult situation|
|suite||/ swiːt /||noun: apartment consisting of a series of connected rooms used as a living unit (as in a hotel); a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected; a matching set of furniture; the group following and attending to some important person|
|sup||/ sʌp /||noun: a small amount of liquid food; verb: take solid or liquid food into the mouth a little at a time either by drinking or by eating with a spoon|
|surmise||/ sə.ˈmaɪz /||noun: a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence; verb: infer from incomplete evidence; imagine to be the case or true or probable|
|sward||/ swɔːd /||noun: surface layer of ground containing a mat of grass and grass roots|
|sword||/ sɔːd /||noun: a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard|
|tally||/ ˈtæ.li /||noun: a score in baseball made by a runner touching all four bases safely; the act of counting; a bill for an amount due; verb: keep score, as in games; determine the sum of; gain points in a game; be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics|
|tarry||/ ˈtɑː.ri /||adjective: having the characteristics of pitch or tar; verb: leave slowly and hesitantly; be about|
|tater||/ ˈteitə /||noun: (diminutive of potato) an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland; annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous|
|tease||/ tiːz /||noun: the act of harassing someone playfully or maliciously (especially by ridicule); provoking someone with persistent annoyances; someone given to teasing (as by mocking or stirring curiosity); a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men; verb: ruffle (one's hair) by combing towards the ends towards the scalp, for a full effect; harass with persistent criticism or carping; mock or make fun of playfully; separate the fibres of; disentangle and raise the fibres of; raise the nap of (fabrics); tear into pieces; annoy persistently; to arouse hope, desire, or curiosity without satisfying them|
|threepence||/ ˈθrɪ.pəns /||noun: former cupronickel coin of the United Kingdom equal to three pennies|
|thyme||/ taɪm /||noun: leaves can be used as seasoning for almost any meat and stews and stuffings and vegetables; any of various mints of the genus Thymus|
|tie||/ taɪ /||noun: a cord (or string or ribbon or wire etc.) with which something is tied; a horizontal beam used to prevent two other structural members from spreading apart or separating; one of the cross braces that support the rails on a railway track; (music) a slur over two notes of the same pitch; indicates that the note is to be sustained for their combined time value; equality of score in a contest; a fastener that serves to join or connect; neckwear consisting of a long narrow piece of material worn (mostly by men) under a collar and tied in knot at the front; the finish of a contest in which the score is tied and the winner is undecided; a social or business relationship; verb: form a knot or bow in; limit or restrict to; finish a game with an equal number of points, goals, etc.; fasten or secure with a rope, string, or cord; unite musical notes by a tie; make by tying pieces together; connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces; perform a marriage ceremony; create social or emotional ties|
|tier||/ tɪə /||noun: one of two or more layers one atop another; something that is used for tying; a worker who ties something; any one of two or more competitors who tie one another; a relative position or degree of value in a graded group|
|timber||/ ˈtɪm.bə /||noun: a beam made of wood; a post made of wood; (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound); land that is covered with trees and shrubs; the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material|
|toll||/ təʊl /||noun: a fee levied for the use of roads or bridges (used for maintenance); value measured by what must be given or done or undergone to obtain something; the sound of a bell being struck; verb: ring slowly; charge a fee for using|
|tomb||/ tuːm /||noun: a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone)|
|topsail||/ ˈtɒp.sl̩ /||noun: a sail (or either of a pair of sails) immediately above the lowermost sail of a mast and supported by a topmast|
|tortious||/ ˈtɔːʃəs /||adjective: of or pertaining to the nature of a tort|
|tortoise||/ ˈtɔː.təs /||noun: usually herbivorous land turtles having clawed elephant-like limbs; worldwide in arid area except Australia and Antarctica|
|towed||/ təʊd /||noun: the act of hauling something (as a vehicle) by means of a hitch or rope; verb: drag behind|
|treason||/ ˈtriːz.n̩ /||noun: a crime that undermines the offender's government; disloyalty by virtue of subversive behaviour; an act of deliberate betrayal|
|treasure||/ ˈtre.ʒə /||noun: a collection of precious things; any possession that is highly valued by its owner; accumulated wealth in the form of money or jewels etc.; art highly prized for its beauty or perfection; verb: be fond of; be attached to; hold dear|
|trickery||/ ˈtrɪk.ə.ri /||noun: the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them); verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way|
|tripod||/ ˈtraɪ.pɒd /||noun: a three-legged rack used for support|
|trivial||/ ˈtrɪ.vɪəl /||adjective: obvious and dull; concerned with trivialities; not large enough to consider or notice; (informal) small and of little importance; of little substance or significance|
|troll||/ trəʊl /||noun: angling by drawing a baited line through the water; a fisherman's lure that is used in trolling; (Scandinavian folklore) a supernatural creature (either a dwarf or a giant) that is supposed to live in caves or in the mountains; a partsong in which voices follow each other; one voice starts and others join in one after another until all are singing different parts of the song at the same time; verb: speak or recite rapidly or in a rolling voice; praise or celebrate in song; sing loudly and without inhibition; angle with a hook and line drawn through the water; sing the parts of (a round) in succession; cause to move round and round; circulate, move around|
|trolley||/ ˈtrɒ.li /||noun: a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity|
|trove||/ trəʊv /||noun: treasure of unknown ownership found hidden (usually in the earth)|
|truism||/ ˈtruːɪ.zəm /||noun: an obvious truth|
|tuner||/ ˈtjuː.nə /||noun: someone who tunes pianos; an electronic receiver that detects and demodulates and amplifies transmitted signals|
|turpentine||/ ˈtɜː.pən.taɪn /||noun: volatile liquid distilled from turpentine oleoresin; used as paint thinner and solvent and medicinally; obtained from conifers (especially pines)|
|twopence||/ ˈtʌ.pəns /||noun: a former United Kingdom silver coin; United Kingdom bronze decimal coin worth two pennies|
|uncouth||/ ʌnˈk.uːθ /||adjective: lacking refinement or cultivation or taste|
|unicorn||/ ˈjuː.nɪk.ɔːn /||noun: an imaginary creature represented as a white horse with a long horn growing from its forehead|
|unstable||/ ʌn.ˈsteɪb.l̩ /||adjective: highly or violently reactive; disposed to psychological variability; lacking stability or fixity or firmness; subject to change; variable; affording no ease or reassurance; suffering from severe mental illness|
|valentine||/ ˈvæ.lən.taɪn /||noun: a card sent or given (as to a sweetheart) on Saint Valentine's Day; a sweetheart chosen to receive a greeting on Saint Valentine's Day|
|valise||/ və.ˈliːz /||noun: a small overnight bag for short trips|
|valour||/ ˈvæ.lə /||noun: the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle)|
|valve||/ vælv /||noun: control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid; device in a brass wind instrument for varying the length of the air column to alter the pitch of a tone; a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it|
|vapid||/ ˈvæ.pɪd /||adjective: lacking significance or liveliness or spirit or zest; lacking taste or flavour or tang|
|vapour||/ ˈveɪ.pə /||noun: the process of becoming a vapor; a visible suspension in the air of particles of some substance|
|vase||/ vɑːz /||noun: an open jar of glass or porcelain used as an ornament or to hold flowers|
|verdict||/ ˈvɜː.dɪkt /||noun: (law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment|
|verge||/ vɜːdʒ /||noun: a grass border along a road; the limit beyond which something happens or changes; a ceremonial or emblematic staff; a region marking a boundary; verb: border on; come close to|
|verse||/ vɜːs /||noun: a piece of poetry; a line of metrical text; literature in metrical form; verb: familiarize through thorough study or experience; compose verses or put into verse|
|vial||/ ˈvaɪəl /||noun: a small bottle that contains a drug (especially a sealed sterile container for injection by needle)|
|vicar||/ ˈvɪkə /||noun: a Roman Catholic priest who acts for another higher-ranking clergyman; (Church of England) a clergyman appointed to act as priest of a parish; (Episcopal Church) a clergyman in charge of a chapel|
|victual||/ ˈvɪt.l̩ /||noun: any substance that can be used as food; verb: take in nourishment; lay in provisions; supply with food|
|viscount||/ ˈvaɪk.aʊnt /||noun: a British peer who ranks below an earl and above a baron; (in various countries) a son or younger brother or a count|
|vomit||/ ˈvɒ.mɪt /||noun: the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth; the matter ejected in vomiting; a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting; verb: eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth|
|vow||/ vaʊ /||noun: a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner; verb: make a vow; promise; dedicate to a deity by a vow|
|wan||/ wɒn /||adjective: lacking vitality as from weariness or illness or unhappiness; abnormally deficient in colour as suggesting physical or emotional distress; (of light) lacking in intensity or brightness; dim or feeble; noun: a computer network that spans a wider area than does a local area network; verb: become pale and sickly|
|wasp||/ wɒsp /||noun: social or solitary hymenopterans typically having a slender body with the abdomen attached by a narrow stalk and having a formidable sting; a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who belongs to a Protestant denomination|
|whey||/ weɪ /||noun: watery part of milk produced when raw milk sours and coagulates; the serum or watery part of milk that is separated from the curd in making cheese|
|wholly||/ ˈhəʊl li /||adverb: to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')|
|wight||/ waɪt /||noun: an isle and county of southern England in the English Channel; a human being; `wight' is an archaic term|
|wits||/ wɪts /||noun: the basic human power of intelligent thought and perception|
|wolf||/ wʊlf /||noun: any of various predatory carnivorous canine mammals of North America and Eurasia that usually hunt in packs; a man who is aggressive in making amorous advances to women; German classical scholar who claimed that the Iliad and Odyssey were composed by several authors (1759-1824); Austrian composer (1860-1903); a cruelly rapacious person; verb: eat hastily|
|wont||/ wɒnt /||noun: a pattern of behaviour acquired through frequent repetition; an established custom|
|worm||/ wɜːm /||noun: any of numerous relatively small elongated soft-bodied animals especially of the phyla Annelida and Chaetognatha and Nematoda and Nemertea and Platyhelminthes; also many insect larvae; screw thread on a gear with the teeth of a worm wheel or rack; a software program capable of reproducing itself that can spread from one computer to the next over a network; a person who has a nasty or unethical character undeserving of respect; verb: to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling)|
|worsted||/ ˈwʊ.stɪd /||noun: a woollen fabric with a hard textured surface and no nap; woven of worsted yarns "he wore a worsted suit"; a tightly twisted woollen yarn spun from long-staple wool|
|worsted||/ ˈwɜː.stɪd /||verb: to be defeated|
|worthless||/ ˈwɜːθ.ləs /||adjective: lacking in usefulness or value; morally reprehensible|
|woven||/ ˈwəʊ.vən /||adjective: made or constructed by interlacing threads or strips of material or other elements into a whole|
|yacht||/ jɒt /||noun: an expensive vessel propelled by sail or power and used for cruising or racing; verb: travel in a yacht|
|ye||/ jiː /||pronoun: archaic and poetical form of the pronoun, you|
|yea||/ jeɪ /||adverb: not only so, but; noun: an affirmative|
|yearling||/ ˈjɜːl.ɪŋ /||noun: an animal in its second year; a racehorse considered one year old until the second Jan. 1 following its birth; a young child|
|zeal||/ ziːl /||noun: excessive fervour to do something or accomplish some end; prompt willingness; a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favour of a person or cause)|
|zephyr||/ ˈze.fə /||noun: (Greek mythology) the Greek god of the west wind; a slight wind (usually refreshing)|
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