An explanation of function and content words in English. The difference between function and content words is one of the key factors in English sentence stress and the rhythm of English. This lesson help you to better understand them. I’ve used the terms function and content words several times in this course up to now. I thought it was a good time to tell you what they are. Function words are also known as structure words, grammatical words, grammatical functors, grammatical morphemes, function morphemes, form words, and empty words. That list will give you a good idea of what they are.
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Here are some random Sounds British Pronunciation British English lessons taken from the 230 British English lessons currently in the Britlish Library.
Activate the consonant sound / t / in Tattoo. In this Pronunciation Activation Pack we will be looking at the consonant sound / t /. We will look at the letter combinations that give the / t / sound. We will look at lots of words which have the / t / sound in them. Finally, we will activate your ability to hear and produce the / t / sound correctly. The / t / sound is an unvoiced alveolar plosive made by blocking the air flow with the tongue on the alveolar ridge and then releasing it explosively. The / t / sound on the chart is shown in blue, which means that it is unvoiced. Each of the consonant sounds on the first two rows of consonants make up an unvoiced and a voiced pair. The only difference between the unvoiced and voiced pairs is the use of the vocal cords while saying them. Pronunciation Activation Pack 24 - The / t / in Tattoo
The pronoun, it, can be used for what is sometimes called the empty pronoun, or the dummy subject, because it does not to stand for anything in particular. Ellipsis or near ellipsis is a feature of English pronunciation that we see with many pronouns at the beginning of sentences, and particularly when we use the empty pronoun. Ellipsis is when the empty pronoun disappears completely, while near-ellipsis is when we are left with a little of the empty pronoun. Of course, we don’t have to leave out any of the sounds and can say the sentence in its entirety. We will still be understood, but it may not sound quite as natural as a native speaker. By learning about ellipsis and near ellipsis, you will also be priming your ear to better hear what native English speakers are saying. We will do some exercises to see if you can hear and identify this speech feature when listening to normal, fast-spoken English speech.
Practice hearing the changes in fast spoken speech. When we speak quickly, sounds that we expect to hear may be missing. It’s not only sounds that go missing in fast spoken English. Whole words may disappear, too. Sounds also change in fast spoken English and some words will not sound the same as they do when spoken slowly, or the way they are shown in dictionaries. In these exercises, I want you to try to hear what changes are taking place in the fast spoken sentences. We will look in greater detail at the changes in later lessons in this Sounds British Pronunciation Course. Changes in Fast Speech.
Activate the Vowel in Clock / ɒ / with this English Pronunciation Activation Pack. In this Pronunciation Activation Pack we will be looking at the last of the pure vowels / ɒ /. We will look at the letter combinations that give the / ɒ / sound. We will look at lots of words which have the / ɒ / sound in them. Finally, we will activate your ability to hear and produce the / ɒ / sound correctly. Letter Combinations for / ɒ / - This short vowel sound has these letter combinations: O, A (following /w/), OU, OW, AU, and ACH. There are four other vowel sounds that cause confusion with the / ɒ / sound. I won’t be repeating minimal pairs in this Pronunciation Activation Pack. Instead, I’ll look at the / ɒ / vs / ɑː / minimal pairs. I will look at the / ɒ / vs / əʊ / minimal pairs when we look at the / əʊ / gliding vowel sound later in this course. Pronunciation Activation Pack 12 - The Vowel in Clock / ɒ /
Activate the consonant semivowel sounds / w / in Wasp and / j / in Yellow. In this Pronunciation Activation Pack we will be looking at the consonant sounds / w / and / j /. We will look at the letter combinations that give the / w / and / j / sounds. We will look at lots of words which have the / w / and / j / sounds in them. Finally, we will activate your ability to hear and produce the / w / and / j / sounds correctly. The / w / and / j / sounds are semivowels or glides which are a type of approximant. The semivowels have characteristics of both consonants and vowels in different words. The / w / and the / j / sounds on the chart are shown in green, which means that they are voiced. Pronunciation Activation Pack 37 - The / w / in Wasp and the / j / in Yellow
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