Did you know that there are over 600,000 words in English? That's a lot of words, and far more than any human being could ever manage to learn. Even Shakespeare only used around 55,000 different words in all of his works. Mind you, he did actually invent quite a few of them. To get a good mastery of English, you do need to expand your vocabulary as much as possible. The more words you know, the better your English will be. The Activities here will help you to quickly develop your vocabulary.
Reading is the easiest way to take in English. Listening is a much harder skill and one that has to be developed as you study the language. There are lots of speech features that arise when native English speakers speak English. These speech features, such as elision, simplification, intonation, stress, and rhythm, and the way in which speakers may miss out sounds or whole words, are important to understand if you are to be able to listen to and fully understand spoken English. These Britlish Library Activities will help you to develop you listening skills.
The Activities categorised as English in Use look at the way we use English in everyday life. The Activities cover the actual use of English and examine grammar, punctuation, and functionality of the language. For any student studying English as a second language or English as a foreign language, English in Use Activities are particularly useful for improving speaking, writing, reading, and listening skills. These Activities will help you to develop your confidence in using different types of text such as fiction, newspapers and magazines, as well as learning to speak and write about things such as the weather and travel, as well as preparing you for typical situations such as ordering in a restaurant or buying a train ticket.
The language in this lesson is very important and yet it is never covered in any English textbooks or English classrooms. It is the language of the toilet and it is language that you need to learn if you are ever to call yourself proficient. It's not surprising that students never learn this language and that teachers never teach it as almost everyone in Britain is too shy to talk about it. This lesson breaks boundaries and is not afraid to teach you this most important subset of the English language. If you are easily offended by such language, you should still do this lesson.
Here is a subject you won’t find in any detail in any of your English textbooks. It’s strange really, when you consider that each and every one of us does this at least once or twice a day. Yet many people, and the English in particular, a rather embarrassed when talking about going to the toilet. The English, being somewhat reluctant to admit that they do go to the toilet, have invented many expressions to sanitise this rather natural bodily function. Perhaps it is this embarrassment about our natural bodily functions that makes toilet humour so popular in Hollywood movies and for stand-up comedians. But this is not a modern phenomenon, this version to accept our body’s natural processes. Around 1781, Benjamin Franklin wrote an essay entitled, Fart Proudly, in which he suggested to the Royal Academy of Brussels that research ought to be undertaken into ways of improving the odour of the human fart. Raucously funny, the essay has nevertheless been excluded from most published collections of Franklin’s writings. I fully expect this video to upset my more genteel viewers, so don’t be shy in complaining about the content in the comments below the video. Let’s take a look at some of this vocabulary that you won’t easily find elsewhere. When I was in the military, I once told our appalling army chef that he was a genius. He was a genius, I told him, because it took the human body twenty-four hours to turn good food into shit, whereas he could do it in a matter of minutes. And that’s basically what our bodies do, isn’t it? We fill our stomachs with food and drink and thus begin a process whereby our bodies remove everything useful from the food by digestion and excrete the waste products. There are two types of waste product produced by the body. There is solid waste produced by the bowels or intestines, and there is liquid waste produced by the kidneys and stored in the bladder. We’ll have a look at the liquid waste first. Your kidneys act as filters, filter in your blood and extracting the things that your body doesn’t need. This waste material is stored in the bladder and its technical name is urine. Other nouns for urine are pee, piddle, piss, and wee. Children use the term, wee-wee. The verb is used to describe how we rid ourselves of the urine are many and varied. The technical term is urination. If your bladder is full and you desperately need to urinate, you can say that you are bursting. I’m bursting! I’m bursting for a pee! I’m bursting for a wee! You can also say, I need to empty my bladder! or, I need to take a leak. For reasons unknown to me, when men take a leak they can say, I need a slash, slash being a male only term for urination. I’m going to have a slash! I’ve just been for a slash! If you’ve had a slash, you should wash your hands. Women may well say that they are going to pass water, and children are told to go for a tinkle. And when someone is accused of taking the piss, they are not collecting urine like the ancient Romans used to do to sell to the fullers for cleaning wool and other things. To take the piss is to make fun of someone. And now let’s take a look, metaphorically speaking, at the solid waste that our bodies produce. The more delicate amongst you, and those easily offended, should perhaps stop watching this video now. If, however, you feel, as I do, that all English is important, even the English that some deem offensive, you should stay and learn. If you’re not constipated, you excrete solid waste daily. As there are seven billion of us now, that’s a lot of waste every day! Go to your doctor, possibly to relieve your constipation, and your doctor will use terms like bowel movement, defecation, evacuation of the bowels, and the passing of stools, so as not to offend. Mind you, if I passed a stool, I’d be pretty well offended, or at least my bottom would be. Your doctor is not going to ask you how many times you have a crap, or take a dump. Such terms are normally heard amongst friends at work or in the pub. If you have diarrhoea, the doctor is likely to ask you if your stools or motions are loose. Those of a more polite disposition are more likely to use the term poo, as in, I’m going for a poo. This poo should not be confused with the furry Pooh that A.A. Milne created. Countless children, however, have sniggered at the humorous connotation between poo and Winnie the Pooh. And then there are times when you just have to excuse yourself in order to go to the toilet and answer the call of nature. So what terms can you use in English to do so? Well, you could say, if you’re a woman, I need to powder my nose. You can also, regardless of gender, and notes that you need to spend a penny. To spend a penny comes from the days when public toilets used to cost a penny to use. And there’s an amusing little rhyme that Benjamin Franklin would have appreciated: Here I sit, brokenhearted, paid a penny, and only farted! And if someone tells you they have just taken the dog out to go to the bathroom, they mean they took it outside so that it could relieve itself having been caught short. There are other words, like bathroom, that we used to hide the fact that we are going to the toilet, too. The toilet can be called the karzie, as in, I’m off to the karzie. It’s also known as the bog. I’m on the blog! Don’t use the term, bog, if you’re in polite company. Prefer the term, lavatory. Lavatory is often shortened to lav or Lavvy. Then there’s the old English term, privy, which is another word for latrine. There is a legend that the term, WC, which is another term for toilet, comes from the initials of a very aptly named a Victorian plumber, Thomas Crapper. WC actually stands for water closet. The word crap is actually of Middle English origin, and so predates Mr Crapper by some hundreds of years. While Crapper popularised sanitary plumbing, the modern flush toilet had actually been invented by John Harrington as early as 1596. Queen Elizabeth I, Harrington’s grandmother, refused to use his toilet as it made too much noise. The British were centuries behind many civilisations, however, some of which, like the Minoans and the Romans, had been using flush toilets thousands of years before Queen Elizabeth refused to use hers. Americans have the terms, can and john, while the British, who still have a monarchy, use throne as a pseudonym for toilet. Loo is also popular among the British. Can you tell me where the loo is, please?
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