Britlish

5WH Questions

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The Activities categorised as English in Use look at the way we use English in everyday life. The Activities cover the actual use of English and examine grammar, punctuation, and functionality of the language. For any student studying English as a second language or English as a foreign language, English in Use Activities are particularly useful for improving speaking, writing, reading, and listening skills. These Activities will help you to develop your confidence in using different types of text such as fiction, newspapers and magazines, as well as learning to speak and write about things such as the weather and travel, as well as preparing you for typical situations such as ordering in a restaurant or buying a train ticket.

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If you find yourself travelling to an English speaking country, these Activities will be very valuable to you. The Activities look at some of the most common vocabulary you will need in situations like buying a train or plane ticket, booking a hotel, asking for directions, and many more situations that the traveller can find themselves in.

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Using the question words what, why, when, where, who and how, is the easiest way to get all the information you need about any subject. This lesson explains in detail how to use these interrogatives, subject and object sentences, adverb questions, why questions, indirect questions, polite requests, rhetorical questions, useful English grammar as it relates to questions, sentence structure, subjects, objects and passives, the pronunciation of questions, rising or falling intonation, and how to punctuate sentences when writing. Included are hundreds of example sentences for situations such as shopping, eating out, travel, entertainment, time and weather.

5WH Questions in English

Introduction

Rudyard Kipling

The famous British writer, Rudyard Kipling, wrote in 1902:

I keep six honest serving men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.

The Value of 5WH

These interrogative, or question words, what, why, when, where, who, and how, have become known as the 5WH questions.

When used properly, the 5WH questions can get you all the information you need about any subject.

In this Little Bit of Britlish I will tell you how to use Kipling's "six honest serving men" properly.

I'll also take a look at questions that do not use the 5WH words. We call these questions, closed questions.

Closed questions

Before we look at the 5WH questions, also known as open questions, we’ll take a look at closed questions.

Closed questions get only a yes or no, or a short answer.

Word Order

In this section, we will look at the order of words that we have to use in closed questions.

Statements

In normal English statements we use the word order, subject - verb - object/complement.

Statement: I like ice-cream.

Here, the subject is I, the verb is like and the object is ice-cream.

Statement: She is happy.

Here, the subject is she, the verb is to be and the complement is happy.

An object is a thing but a complement is something we say about the subject.

In the statement she is happy, the main verb, to be, is acting as a copular, or linking verb, linking the subject to the complement.

The principal verbs that are used as copula verbs in English are: appear, be, become, feel, get, go, grow, keep, live, look, prove, remain, resemble, run, seem, smell, sound, say, and taste.

Closed question Word Order

Closed questions, or yes/no questions have the word order, verb – subject – object/complement.

We can easily turn a statement, subject - verb - object/complement, into a question by switching the order of the subject and verb.

The form of this type of question restricts the response to either yes or no.

Negative Closed questions

These yes/no questions can be formed in the negative.

Missing Contractions In English

You may have noticed that some British English speakers use a strange contracted form of am not - ain't.

This is a colloquial usage but it is quite common in parts of the Britain, so I thought it important to include it.

You see, there isn't, in standard English, a contracted form of am not, as there is for is not - isn't, were not - weren't, and are not - aren't.

In the 18th Century, there was a form amn't, which still survives in some northern dialects, but not in standard English, or RP English.

We also use the contracted form for will not of won't.

Most speakers will use I'm not rather than the colloquial form, ain't, which is seen as uneducated.

Ain't is also used by some as a contraction for is not, are not, has not, and even have not.

You're probably not going to use this in your own speech, but you're definitely going to hear some people using it.

There are many famous examples of the use of ain't in modern culture, including a famous British television comedy entitled, It ain't half hot Mum!

American culture also uses ain't, and one famous example is the blues song, King of the Road by Roger Miller which opens:

Trailer for sale or rent, rooms to let, fifty cents.

No phone, no pool, no pets, I ain't got no cigarettes

Auxiliary Verbs

We can also form questions using auxiliary verb – subject – main verb.

For instance, if we have the auxiliary verb have in the statement:

We do not switch the position of the subject, you, with the main verb, finished, but with the auxiliary verb, have.

Hidden Auxiliary Verb

But what happens if we don't appear to have an auxiliary verb to switch with the subject and form a question?

Statement: You like ice-cream.

Here, the subject is you and the main verb is like. However, there is an auxiliary verb hiding in the statement. It's the verb do.

Statements like this are actually saying, you do like ice cream.

Now that we know there's a hidden auxiliary verb, do, in the statement, it is easy enough to form a yes/no type question.

Main and Helping Verbs

Some verbs can be used both as main verbs and as helping verbs.

These verbs are often called auxiliary verbs when they used as helping verbs.

The verbs to be, to do and to have are the verbs that we use as both main verbs and auxiliary verbs.

Modal Verbs

When we have a modal verb such as the verbs can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would, we place the modal verb before the subject in closed questions.

Modal verbs are also called helping verbs, auxiliary verbs, or modal auxiliary verbs.

We use modal verbs to help the main verb say more than it normally does.

We use modal verbs to talk about possibility, ability, permission, and to make polite requests.

Notice that when used on its own, as in, I will, we do not use a contraction. We only use a contraction when we have a main verb with the auxiliary verb.

Modal or Primary Auxiliary

Modal Auxiliaries

The modal auxiliary verbs are unchanging in form regardless of the tense in which they are used. Another way of saying this is that the modal auxiliaries cannot be inflected as main verbs can.

Can is always can, should is always should, would is always would.

Neither can modal auxiliary verbs be used as gerunds, infinitives or participles.

Main Verb As Auxiliary

Some main verbs can also be used as auxiliary verbs.

Main verbs do change their form as auxiliaries depending on the tense in which they are used.

The main verbs that are used as auxiliary verbs are the verbs to be, to have, to do.

He is stupid.

Here the verb to be is a main verb.

We can easily switch the subject, he, and the verb, is, to form a question.

Closed question: Is he stupid?

However, the verb to be can also be used as an auxiliary.

He is being stupid.

Here the verb to be is being used as an auxiliary verb, is, and a main verb, being.

In the question we switch the subject, he, with the auxiliary verb, is, not with the main verb.

Closed question: Is he being stupid?

Hidden Auxiliary Verb

When we do not have an auxiliary verb, we use the verb do instead.

Ability

We use the modal can to ask about ability.

Ambiguity and humour

Polite request: Can you close the window?

Sarcastic answer: Yes, I can.

The answerer does not then close the window, but merely shows a smug look on their face.

Such sarcasm comes from the fact that we use the word can to ask about ability as well as making polite requests.

Verb To Be

The most common verb used with closed questions is the verb to be.

The verb to be is an irregular verb.

 

Present Tense

Past Tense

Perfect Form

Continuous Form

I

am

was

have been

am being

You

are

were

have been

are being

He/She/It

is

was

has been

is being

They

are

were

have been

are being

We

are

were

have been

are being

You

are

were

have been

are being

In the continuous form, the verb to be is being used both as a helping verb and as a main verb.

In the statement, I am being serious, am is being used as a helping verb, while being is being used as a main verb.

We would form a question from the statement, I am being serious, by changing the position of the subject, I, and the helping verb, am:

Am I being serious?

Many closed questions, or yes/no questions, have the word order, verb to be – subject – object/complement.

Where there is no helping verb, swap the places of the verb and the subject to form a question.

Verb To Do

Another common verb used with closed questions is the verb to do.

The verb to do is an irregular verb.

 

Present Tense

Past Tense

Perfect Form

Continuous Form

I

do

did

have done

am doing

You

do

did

have done

are doing

He/She/It

does

did

has done

is doing

They

do

did

have done

are doing

We

do

did

have done

are doing

You

do

did

have done

are doing

We would form a question from the statement, You did your homework, by changing the position of the subject, You, and the helping verb, did, and by adding the main verb do:

Sometimes, we just have the main verb, do, which in a statement we use for emphasis.

Whether the statement is non-emphatic or emphatic, we use do to form the question.

There is no non-emphatic negative answer, as we use do not to form the negative.

Verb To Have

A verb commonly used with closed questions is the verb to have.

The verb to have is an irregular verb.

 

Present Tense

Past Tense

Perfect Form

Continuous Form

I

have

had

have had

am having

You

have

had

have had

are having

He/She/It

has

had

has had

is having

They

have

had

have had

are having

We

have

had

have had

are having

You

have

had

have had

are having

In the perfect form, the verb to have is being used both as a helping verb and as a main verb.

In the statement, I have had enough, have is being used as a helping verb, while had is being used as a main verb.

We form a question from the statement, I have had enough, by changing the position of the subject, I, and the helping verb, have:

Closed question: Have I had enough?

Many closed questions, or yes/no questions, which use to have have the word order, helping verb – subject - verb to have -  object/complement.

In these cases the verb to have is a main verb not a helping verb.

Got or Do

One question form that confuses students is the use of have you got and do you have.

Both of these question forms have exactly the same meaning. They both ask if the answerer is in possession of something. You may get a slightly different answer structure depending on how you ask the question.

Ellipsis

Ellipsis is the missing out of words when we speak. Ellipsis is commonly used where it is obvious who is speaking to whom about what.

The context means that the questioner and the answerer know exactly who is being asked what. And the question can be asked with ellipsis of the do you.

Provided that the correct intonation, a rising, enquiring intonation, is used, we can use ellipsis to reduce the question even further.

Auxiliary Verbs

Because it is the auxiliary verb that fronts a closed question, it is the auxiliary verb that we most often leave out through ellipsis. Speakers also commonly leave out the pronoun when it comes at the beginning of a sentence or question, particularly when the context makes it clear who is speaking to whom about what.

Provided both the questioner and the answerer know from the context who is being spoken to, ellipsis of the auxiliary verb and the pronoun is quite acceptable. So don't be surprised if you're asked closed question that is missing both.

Conditionals

A conditional sentence describes a condition and a result that follows from that condition.

Conditional sentences are formed from two parts. The if-clause, and the main clause.

The if-clause states the condition that will result in the main clause.

There are four English conditionals.

Conditional

if-clause

main clause

Zero conditional

If you heat ice,

it melts

First conditional

If you heat ice,

it will melt.

Second conditional

If you heated the ice,

it would melt.

Third conditional

If you had heated the ice,

it would have melted.

In these four English conditionals the if-clause and the main clause both refer to the same time.

If we have different times in the if-clause and the main clause, we have what we call mixed conditionals.

In a conditional sentence the differential clause can come first or last.

If it comes first, we use a comma.

We don't use a comma if it comes last.

As we will see, yes/no, or closed, questions are easily formed from conditional sentences simply by switching the position of the subject and the auxiliary verb.

Open Questions

Open questions can also be formed using if clauses. These are essentially 5WH questions.

Zero Conditional

We use a zero conditional to talk about results that always occur from a particular action.

You can see that the question form of the zero conditional does not change the if clause but changes the main clause into the question the same way we looked at when we looked at tenses.

First Conditional

The first conditional talks about situations that are possible in the future.

In the if clause, the main verb is in the present tense, and in the main clause the verb is in the future simple.

Second Conditional

The second conditional is used to talk about future situations that are unlikely, or to give advice.

In the if clause, the verb is in the past tense while the main clause uses the auxiliary would and a main verb in the present tense.

The second conditional is used for polite requests that take the form of would you or would you mind if.

Third Conditional

The third conditional talks about situations but are not possible because what is mentioned in the if clause never happened in the past.

The if clause uses the past perfect tense, while the main clause also uses a perfect tense.

Tag Questions

Most tag questions do not exist in order to obtain information, do they?

They function as a type of closed question, asking the listener to agree or disagree with something we have said.

Form

The tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun, isn't it?

The auxiliary verb in the tag question must match the verb in the preceding main sentence, mustn't it?

If the verb in the main sentences in the present perfect, the tag question uses has or have, doesn't it?

If the verb in the main sentences in the present continuous, the tag uses the auxiliary verb to be, doesn't it?

If the main verb in the main sentence is a tense that doesn't use an auxiliary, such as the present simple, then the auxiliary verb in the tag uses the emphatic form of the verb do, doesn't it?

If the main sentence uses a modal auxiliary, then we use a modal auxiliary in the tag, don't we?

If the main sentence uses the verb to be as a main verb, not as an auxiliary, then the tag uses the verb to be as well, doesn't it?

If the main sentence uses the verb to have as a main verb, we can choose to use the verb to have or the verb to do in the tag, can't we?

Balance

Question tags can either be positive or negative, can't they?

Balanced Tag Questions

Deciding whether the tag should be positive or negative is quite simple. The general rule is that if the main sentence is positive, then the tag is negative, and if the main sentences negative, then the tag is positive.

Unbalanced Tag Questions

When the tag is not balanced with the main sentence, we have a positive statement and a positive tag, or a negative statement and a negative tag.

Such unbalanced tag questions are used for sarcasm, irony, or confrontation.

Rhetorical

We use rhetorical tag questions when we want to criticise or demonstrate our annoyance, don't we?

Open Questions

Open questions are questions which cannot be answered by a simple yes or no answer. Open questions generally get you a longer and more detailed answer.

The opposite of open questions are closed questions.

Unlike closed questions, open questions force the answerer to think and reflect on their answer, rather than just stating yes or no or a short answer.

Open questions will give you the answerer's feelings and opinions, and they help to open up a conversation.

Interrogatives

The interrogatives are the words that we used to form open questions. They are also known as the question words, and the study of these interrogatives, the 5WH words, is the purpose of this eBook.

Who?

See also: Which

We use the interrogative, who, to ask about the subject when the subject is a person.

Whom

Whom is a personal interrogative pronoun used to ask about the object.

In this statement, Richard is the subject, wrote is the verb, this book is the direct object, and you is the object of the preposition.

Besides a few, increasingly rare, individuals who insist on "proper" grammar, no one will object to the use of who in place of whom.

Whose

Whose is the possessive interrogative pronoun. It asks about the person who owns a thing.

The answer will be the name of a person or organisation, or a possessive pronoun.

Possessives

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive Pronoun

my

mine

your

yours

his

his

her

hers

its

its

our

ours

your

yours

their

theirs

What?

We use the interrogative, what, to ask about the subject or the object when the subject or the object is a thing, not a person.

Which

Which, which is pronounced just like the word witch, is an interrogative used to ask about individual people or individual things among groups of several similar people or things.

We can use which to ask for information about the specific person or thing that were talking about.

Where?

We use the interrogative, where, to ask about the location of an event or of a thing.

Statement: Richard wrote this eBook in Spain.

In this statement, Richard is the subject, wrote is the verb, this book is the object, and Spain is the location.

When?

We use the interrogative, when, to ask about time; whether something occurred in the past, is occurring the present, or will occur in the future.

Why?

We use the interrogative word, why, to ask about the reason for something happening or being.

How?

We use the interrogatory, how, to ask in what way or in what manner or by what means something happened.

much

How much is used to ask questions about uncountable nouns.

Notice that how much creates an open question, so cannot be answered by a simple yes or no.

many

How many is used to ask questions about countable nouns.

Notice that how many creates an open question, so cannot be answered by a simple yes or no.

-ever

For emphasis, we can add the suffix -ever to the end of the 5WH interrogatives.

Whoever, whatever, wherever, whenever, why ever, and however.

Notice that with why it is written as two separate words, and with where we lose an e.

It can also be used with whom as in whomever, but like the use of whom in general, this is seen as very formal.

Subject Questions

A subject question is a question that asks about the subject of a sentence.

To form subject questions there are three interrogative words that we can use: what, who, and which. 

What

Dogs are animals not people so we can use the interrogative what to ask about the subject of the sentence.

If we reduce the subject of the sentence to it, we don't then know that it is a dog and have to ask a subject question to find out.

Notice that in the subject question we use the third person singular form of the verb, with added -s, because we are asking about a third person, a he, a she, or an it.

The questioner is the first person, the answerer is the second person, and the thing being asked about must be a third person.

Who

We have seen that what is used to ask about things which are completely unknown to the questioner. The reason the questioner is asking the question is to get the answer to what is the subject of the sentence.

If we know for sure that the subject of the sentence is a person, but we don't know who, we use the interrogative who instead.

Who will get us the name of a person not a thing.

Which

We use the interrogative which when we have a choice of subjects from a group of things of the same class.

Object Questions

Object questions are the most common form of questions. We ask far more questions about the object of sentences than we do about the subject of sentences.

Remember that English sentences always have a subject, but they do not always have an object.

To form object questions there are four interrogative words that we normally use: what, whom, which, and where. 

What

The most common interrogative used to ask about objects is what.

Whom

The object form of the subject interrogative who is whom. We use the interrogative whom to ask about the object.

Many books of grammar insist on the use of whom to ask about the object when the object is a person. However, the distinction between who and whom is no longer made by many speakers of English.

Language is changing all the time, and while traditionally incorrect grammatically, I think that the use of who will supersede the use of whom in all situations and by all speakers in the future.

If you're preparing for an exam such as the FCE or the CAE, or speaking or writing in a formal context, use whom.

If you're speaking to native English speakers in England, you can use and should expect to hear who.

Which

We use the interrogative which when we have a choice of objects from a group of things of the same class.

Where

Places are normally introduced using prepositions. Objects introduced with prepositions are objects of the preposition.

Adverb Questions

Not all questions ask about the subject of a statement or the object of a statement. Sometimes we want to ask about the manner in which the action of the verb was carried out.

We might want to ask when something happened, or where something happened, or how something happened.

These questions are often answered using adverbs of time, adverbs of place, and adverbs of manner.

Adverbs

Adverbs tell us when something happened, the place where it happened, or how it happened. Adverbs give us more information about verbs.

We use the interrogatives, when, where, and how, to ask about the time, place, or manner of an action.

Adverb Type

Interrogative

Adverbs

Adverbs of Time

When?

yesterday, today, now, tomorrow, next week, next month

Adverbs of Place

Where?

here, there, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, anywhere

Adverbs of Manner

How?

well, badly, quickly, slowly, loudly, quietly, fast

How

The interrogative how asks about the manner in which something happened. We can use adverbs to answer how questions if we need to.

When

The interrogative when asks about the time something happens. We can use adverbs to answer when questions if we need to.

Where

The interrogative where is used to ask about the place that something happens. We can use adverbs to answer where questions if we need to.

Why Questions

To answer the why of an action we use an adverbial clause which is sometimes called an adverb clause of cause or reason.

An adverb clause of cause or reason answers the question of why an action happened.

The interrogative why is answered by the reason, purpose, or cause of the action of the verb.

Because

When we want to say why something happened, we can introduce a reason clause using the conjunctions because, as, or since.

To-Infinitive Clause

A common way of introducing an adverb clause of cause or reason is to use a to-infinitive clause.

Formal Writing

A common way of introducing an adverb clause of cause or reason is to use a to-infinitive clause, but in formal writing we can introduce the adverb clause with so as to, or in order to.

Causes

We use the interrogative why to ask about the cause of an action.

Direct or Indirect

Most of the questions we ask direct questions. That is, we asked them directly, making it clear that we are asking a question.

Sometimes, direct questions can be seen as rather rude, especially in formal situations, or when speaking with social or professional superiors. In such situations we prefer to use indirect questions.

Direct Questions

Direct questions are the questions that we normally ask. They can be open questions, or closed questions.

They are called direct questions because we begin the question directly. We generally use direct questions with people we know well such as co-workers, friends and family members.

Indirect Questions

Indirect questions are more formal and polite. We call them indirect questions because they do not ask the question directly, but rather beat around the bush and try to disguise the fact that you're asking a question.

Indirect questions are normally used with people that we don't know so well, or when asking questions of social or professional superiors.

We can turn any direct question, open or closed, into an indirect question by changing the structure and using one of many common phrases.

Word Order

The word order of the essential part of indirect questions, the part that asks for information, is the same as for affirmative, or positive, statements. The essential part of the question has the structure subject - verb - complement.

Closed questions

These questions will give us a yes or no answer, letting us know only if he is eating or not.

Open Questions

For open questions, we use an introductory phrase followed by about or a 5WH interrogative.

If we would like to know what he is eating, we would use the interrogative what instead of if.

There are many introductory phrases we can use, and there are many ways of wording the indirect question. The essential point about indirect questions is that they are very polite.

Common Expressions

There are large number of common expressions that can introduce indirect questions and which make the question formal or more polite than a direct question. Many of them use auxiliary verbs like can, could, may, might, and would.

There are a number of expressions we use to turn a direct question into an indirect question.

Modal Auxiliaries

Can

Can is normally used with the pronoun you to introduce an indirect question and can be followed by a bare infinitive or, if a closed indirect question, by if or whether.

Can you... is the easiest way to form an indirect question.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject. This can cause a lot of confusion for students.

One way to get over this problem when using the introductory phrase can you  is to break the indirect question into its component parts.

Could

Could is normally used with the pronoun you to introduce an indirect question and can be followed by a bare infinitive or, if a closed indirect question, by if or whether.

Could you... is another easy way to form an indirect question, and though it is a little more polite than can it is used in exactly the same way.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject. This can cause a lot of confusion for students.

May

May is normally used with the pronoun I to introduce an indirect question and can be followed by a bare infinitive or, if a closed indirect question, by if or whether.

May I... is much more polite and far more formal than can or could and is not used nearly as often.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject. This can cause a lot of confusion for students.

Unlike when using can or could, which are fairly direct indirect questions, the use of may is so formal and polite that we do not actually use an order in the question. The trick I showed you when using can or could does not apply here. You'll just have to remember the rule of the verb to be coming after the subject. Mind you, if you can use these complicated expressions using may, you probably won't be having this problem anyway.

Might

Might is normally used with the pronoun I to introduce an indirect question and can be followed by a bare infinitive or, if a closed indirect question, by if or whether.

Might I... is used the same way as may, but is also very polite and far too formal for most people.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject. This can cause a lot of confusion for students.

Unlike when using can or could, which are fairly direct indirect questions, the use of might is, like the use of may, so formal and polite we don't actually use an order in the question. The trick I showed you when using can or could does not apply here. You'll just have to remember the rule of the verb to be coming after the subject. Mind you, if you can use these complicated expressions using might, you probably won't be having this problem anyway.

Would

Would is often followed by it be or a pronoun to introduce indirect questions.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject. This can cause a lot of confusion for students.

Do

The verb do followed by a pronoun is probably the most used introductory phrase for indirect questions after can.

Important

Though we use to do in the introductory phrase, if the direct question uses the auxiliary verb to do, we do not use it in the essential part of the indirect question.

Wonder

Wonder is normally used to introduce an indirect question with the introductory phrases I wonder or I was wondering.

Use if or whether, after the introductory phrase if you want to ask a closed indirect question, and one of the 5WH interrogatives if you want to ask an open question.

When we use wonder in the indirect question introduction, the indirect question takes the form of a statement which invites the other party to provide information.

Important

Notice that in indirect questions the verb to be comes after the subject. In direct questions, the verb to be comes before the subject.

Polite Requests

Polite requests are used to avoid sounding rude when asking for permission or for help. The British, living on a small and crowded island, tend to be extremely polite. If you don't use polite requests, especially with people that you don't really know, or with superiors at work, you can be seen as very rude and you're less likely to be granted the request that you're making.

Polite requests are normally made in the form of a question, and that's why I've included them in this eBook.

The most commonly used modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, shall, will, and would, and these modal verbs are often used in polite requests.

Because polite requests are, well, polite, the words please and thank you appear a lot in such exchanges.

Unlike proper questions, which may require a short yes or no answer, polite requests need polite responses.

A request may always be granted or refused. There are different ways of politely refusing a polite request or of politely granting the request. Sometimes you may hear a negative being used to grant the request, which can be a little confusing for students.

Offers

Sometimes we make offers in the form of a question.

Rhetorical Questions

A rhetorical question is a question that is not intended to be answered. Rhetorical questions are used to make a point.

Punctuation

Question Mark

In English, the question mark (?) is placed at the end of the sentence to show that it is a question and not a statement.

Like all other punctuation marks, the question mark is placed immediately after the word that precedes it.

You should never use more than one question mark for each question.

Quotations

When we use quotations, the question mark can go inside or outside the closing quotation marks depending on whether what is inside the quotation marks is a question or not.

Take these two examples, for instance. The first one is quoting a question, and therefore the question mark stays with the final word within the quotation marks. The second one is posing a question about the quotation itself, so the question mark goes outside the quotation marks.

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