Britlish

Present Perfect Time Markers - GA8

Aspect and Tenses Course Grammar

Grammar

These Activities focus on the grammar of English. English grammar compared to other grammars is quite simple, but in its simplicity lies its complexity. The Activities here cover all aspects of English grammar from the aspects and tenses to sentence structures. English grammar covers the structure of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and entire texts. There are eight parts of speech in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. The largest of these parts of speech are the nouns which, unlike most European languages, do not have grammatical gender. English grammar has largely done away with the inflectional case system of other European languages and bases its grammar on analytic constructions. The Activities in this category will go some way to helping you get a better understanding of English grammar.    

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English uses time markers to accurately say when something happened or happens. Yesterday, last week, last month, last year, and many more expressions tell us the when of an action. We cannot use the above finished time markers with the present perfect because they show finished periods of time. We use these time markers with the past simple. We cannot use finished time markers like yesterday, and last year with the present perfect, but there are 4 time markers that we can use. Allow me to explain how we can use these time markers with the present perfect. This British English grammar is essential for all students of English and the many exercises in the pack will help you master it quickly and enjoyably.    

Aspect and Tenses Course

Present Perfect
Time Markers

Grammar Activation Pack 8

Time Markers

English uses time markers to accurately say when something happened or happens.

Yesterday, last week, last month, last year, and many more expressions tell us the when of an action.

We cannot use the above finished time markers with the present perfect because they show finished periods of time.

We use these time markers with the past simple.

Past in Isolation

As I said, we cannot use finished time markers with the present perfect.

Here is a finished time marker: in the last war

We cannot use such time markers with the present perfect because they do not connect the past to the present.

We can use them with the past simple, however, because the past simple only talks about the past and ignores the present.

Captain Britlish flew Spitfires in the last war.

Time Markers for Present Perfect

We cannot use finished time markers like yesterday, and last year with the present perfect, but there are 4 time markers that we can use.

Just

Already

Still

Yet

Allow me to explain how we can use these time markers with the present perfect.

Just for Positive Statements

Just is an adverb which means only a moment before.

Just comes between the auxiliary have and the past participle.

I have just done it.

We have just done it.

You have just done it.

They have just done it.

He has just done it.

She has just done it.

It has just done it.

Just with Questions

Just is an adverb which means only a moment before.

Just comes between the auxiliary have and the past participle in questions, too.

Have I just done it?

Have we just done it?

Have you just done it?

Have they just done it?

Has he just done it?

Has she just done it?

Has it just done it?

Just with Negative Statements

Just is an adverb which means only a moment before.

Just comes after the not and before the past participle in negatives.

I have not just done it.

We have not just done it.

You have not just done it.

They have not just done it.

He has not just done it.

She has not just done it.

It has not just done it.

Just with Other Aspects

Just is most commonly used with the perfect aspect, but is also used with the simple and continuous aspects, too.

I just did it.

Did I just do it?

I am just doing it.

Am I just doing it?

Already for Positive Statements

Already is an adverb which means prior to a specified time.

Already is used with positive sentences and can be placed before the past participle:

I have already done it.

We have already done it.

You have already done it.

They have already done it.

He has already done it.

She has already done it.

It has already done it.

Already for Emphasis

Already is an adverb which means prior to a specified time.

Already can also come at the end position for emphasis:

I have done it already.

We have done it already.

You have done it already.

They have done it already.

He has done it already.

She has done it already.

It has done it already.

Already with Questions

Already is an adverb which means prior to a specified time.

Already is used with questions and can be placed before the past participle.

Have I already done it?

Have we already done it?

Have you already done it?

Have they already done it?

Has he already done it?

Has she already done it?

Has it already done it?

Already Emphatic Questions

Already is an adverb which means prior to a specified time.

Already is used with questions, and can come at the end position for emphasis.

Have I done it already?

Have we done it already?

Have you done it already?

Have they done it already?

Has he done it already?

Has she done it already?

Has it done it already?

Already with Other Aspects

Already can be used with the simple and continuous aspects, too.

I already did it.

Did he already do it?

I did it already.

Did she do it already?

I am already doing it.

Is he already doing it?

I am doing it already.

Are they doing it already?

Still

Still is an adverb which means that something we expected to be finished is not.

I still haven’t done it.

We still haven’t done it.

You still haven’t done it.

They still haven’t done it.

He still hasn’t done it.

She still hasn’t done it.

It still hasn’t done it.

Still for Emphatic Questions

We do not normally use still with present perfect questions.

To ask if something we expected to be finished is finished we normally use yet.

However, we can use still for emphasis:

Have I still not done it?

Have we still not done it?

Have you still not done it?

Have they still not done it?

Has he still not done it?

Has she still not done it?

Has it still not done it?

Still with Other Aspects

Still can be used with the simple and continuous aspects, too.

I still did it.

Did he still do it?

I do it still.

I still do it.

Does she still do it?

I am still doing it.

I am doing it still.

Is he still doing it?

Is she doing it still?

I was still doing it.

Are they doing it still?

Yet for Questions

Yet is an adverb which means up to the present moment.

Yet is used in questions.

Have I done it yet?

Have we done it yet?

Have you done it yet?

Have they done it yet?

Has he done it yet?

Has she done it yet?

Has it done it yet?

Yet for Negative Statements

Yet is an adverb which means up to the present moment.

Yet is used in negative sentences.

I haven’t done it yet.

We haven’t done it yet.

You haven’t done it yet.

They haven’t done it yet.

He hasn’t done it yet.

She hasn’t done it yet.

It hasn’t done it yet.

Not Yet

Not yet is used to talk about things that have not happened but are expected to happen.

Have you done it yet?

No, not yet.

Has she done it yet?

Not yet!

Have they done it yet?

No, not yet.

Rhetorical Questions

Rhetorical questions are questions that have an obvious answer and are used to draw attention to something or express frustration, anger, or other emotions.

We can use the time markers, just, already, and yet to form negative closed questions.

We begin these yes/no rhetorical questions with the contracted form of have not.

Haven’t I just done it?

Hasn’t she already done it?

These questions suggest you expect a yes response and express frustration.

Hasn’t he done it yet?

These yet questions suggest you expect a no response and indicate annoyance.

For

For is used with the present perfect to introduce a period of time.

I have lived in Spain for 16 years.

English has been the world’s most important language for centuries.

Since

Since is used with the present perfect to show a point in time.

I have lived in Spain since 2003.

English has been the world’s most important language since the time of the British Empire.

Continuation to Present

I have already started planning the next Grammar Activation Pack.

I have made a lot of English Activation Packs for my students this year.

Hundreds of students have used the English Activation Packs since I started making them.

Here I am talking about things which started in the past and continue into the present.

Present Time Markers

Time markers like today, this morning, this afternoon, this week, this month, and this year, can be used with the present perfect if they are still current.

I have already taught hundreds of online classes this year.

At the time of writing, the year, 2019, has not finished, and has, indeed, only just begun.

I have not eaten anything yet this afternoon.

At the time of writing, the afternoon has not yet finished.

First time, second time…

We use the present perfect with sentences that use the first / second / third / time…

This is the first time I have done this.

That is the second time they have done that.

That is the third time I have done it.

Before…

We use the present perfect with the adverb before when it means at any time prior to the present.

I have done this before.

Have I done this before?

I have not done this before.

She has done that before.

Has she done that before?

She has not done that before.

Grammar Activator

The best way to activate what you have just learnt is to do some exercises where I can ask you some questions and tell you whether you are right or wrong.

You can do this in the Grammar Activator which is available on the next page.

Just click the Start Quiz button to begin.

You will be asked some random questions from a bank of questions.

Each time you complete the Grammar Activator you can refresh your browser and a new set of questions will be created for you.

Aspect and Tenses

A comprehensive English course covering the tenses and aspects of English in an easy-to-understand format with lots of self-test exercises to check your understanding. You will learn all you need to know about the 3 Key Verbs of English: Be, Do, Have. This course will let you see just how simple English grammar is. We will explore the present simple, the past simple, the present continuous, the post continuous, the present perfect and the present perfect past and present, along with present perfect time markers, the present perfect continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous.

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Aspects and Tenses - GA1

Welcome to the first in my series of Grammar Activation Packs at Britlish.com. Together, the Grammar Activation Packs combine to provide you with a clear overview of English grammar in use. When I teach grammar to my students, I first teach them what I call the three keys to English grammar. The three keys are the three verbs, do, be, and have. Understand these three verbs and you will see just how easy English grammar really is. I have created some fun exercises to help you activate what you have learnt. This British English grammar is essential for all students of English and the many exercises in the pack will help you master it quickly and enjoyably.

Categories: Grammar | English in Use


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Future 1 - GA12

In the previous Grammar Activation Packs I have introduced you to the present and the past tenses, along with the simple, continuous, and perfect aspects. I also mentioned that English has only the two tenses, present and past. So where does this leave us when we want to talk about the future? Don’t worry, there are several ways that we can talk about the future, including using the present tense, which is what I am going to explain in this lesson. There are two aspects of the present tense that we can use to talk about the future. We can use the simple aspect which uses the auxiliary verb do. We can also use the continuous aspect, which uses the auxiliary verb be, and the ing form of a non-finite verb.    

Categories: Grammar | Phrasal Verbs


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Future 2 - GA13

In the previous Grammar Activation Packs I have introduced you to the present and the past tenses, along with the simple, continuous, and perfect aspects. I also mentioned that English has only the two tenses, present and past. This lesson looks at Will or Shall for Future, Asking for Decisions, Promises and Threats, Decisions Made at the Moment, Predicting, Conditionals, Giving Orders or Instructions, Negative Will for Refusals, Negative Shall for Refusals, things Not Rooted in Present, and Future Time Indicators. This British English grammar is essential for all students of English and the many exercises in the pack will help you master it quickly and enjoyably.    

Categories: Grammar


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