Britlish

Present Perfect - GA6

Aspect and Tenses Course Grammar

Grammar

These Activities focus on the grammar of English. English grammar compared to other grammars is quite simple, but in its simplicity lies its complexity. The Activities here cover all aspects of English grammar from the aspects and tenses to sentence structures. English grammar covers the structure of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and entire texts. There are eight parts of speech in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. The largest of these parts of speech are the nouns which, unlike most European languages, do not have grammatical gender. English grammar has largely done away with the inflectional case system of other European languages and bases its grammar on analytic constructions. The Activities in this category will go some way to helping you get a better understanding of English grammar.    

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I explained about the Key Verbs, be, do, and have and their inflected tenses in Grammar Activation Pack 1. I have looked at the simple and continuous aspects, both present and past tense in Grammar Activation Packs 2 to 5. In this Grammar Activation Pack, I am going to tell you how the third of the key verbs, have, is used for the perfect aspect, present tense. When a form of the verb have is not followed by a past participle it is acting as a main verb, not an auxiliary verb and the perfect aspect is not formed. We only have the perfect aspect if one of the inflected forms of have comes before a past participle. This British English grammar is essential for all students of English and the many exercises in the pack will help you master it quickly and enjoyably.

Aspect and Tenses Course

Present Perfect

Grammar Activation Pack 6

Key Verbs, Aspects, and Tenses

I explained about the Key Verbs, be, do, and have and their inflected tenses in Grammar Activation Pack 1.

I have looked at the simple and continuous aspects, both present and past tense in Grammar Activation Packs 2 to 5.

In this Grammar Activation Pack, I am going to tell you how the third of the key verbs, have, is used for the perfect aspect, present tense.

Present Tense Have

The present tense is shown by the two inflected present forms of the verb have, have, and has, and these are used for different subjects.

Have is used with:

First person singular – I have.

First person plural – We have.

Second person singular and plural – You have.

Third person plural – They have.

has is used with:

The gender specific, third person, singular subject pronouns – He has, and She has.

The gender neutral, third person, singular subject pronoun – It has.

Finite or Non-Finite Verbs

A finite verb has a subject and can function as the root of an independent clause.

An independent clause is basically a full sentence and expresses a single thought.

The finite present tense forms of have are have, and has.

Non-finite verbs are the infinitives, the participles, and the gerunds.

The non-finite forms of have are have, had, and having.

I’ll look in detail at finite and non-finite verbs in later Grammar Activation Packs.

Perfect Aspect

Perfect means finished.

The perfect aspect is marked by the auxiliary verb have plus the past participle form of a non-finite verb.

There are 2 finite inflected present tense forms of the verb have: have and has.

In this Grammar Activation Pack, I will be looking at the present tense, perfect aspect, marked by the inflected present tense forms of have, have and has.

Past Participles

Regular verbs form the past participle by adding ed.

Irregular verbs have a past participle form that you must learn individually.

To help you learn them, I have created an Irregular Verb Activator with all of the most common irregular English verbs and their past participle forms.

You will find the Irregular Verb Activator on the next page.

Present Tense, Perfect Aspect

When a form of the verb have is not followed by a past participle it is acting as a main verb, not an auxiliary verb and the perfect aspect is not formed.

We only have the perfect aspect if one of the inflected forms of have comes before a past participle:

I have taught.

We have learnt.

You have learnt.

They have learnt.

He has learnt.

She has learnt.

It has learnt.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Affirmative Contractions

When we speak, we usually use contractions.

When written, a contraction uses an apostrophe to show that some letters are missing.

I’ve taught.

We’ve learnt.

You’ve learnt.

They’ve learnt.

He’s learnt.

She’s learnt.

It’s learnt.

The apostrophe in ’ve and ’s marks the missing letters ha.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Present Perfect Closed Questions

Let’s take a look at the previous statements turned into present perfect closed questions.

Have I taught?

Have we learnt?

Have you learnt?

Have they learnt?

Has he learnt?

Has she learnt?

Has it learnt?

You can’t use contractions in questions.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

5WH Questions

Let’s take a look at some examples of past tense, perfect aspect questions using the 5WH question words.

Why have I taught?

When have we learnt?

Where have you learnt?

How have they learnt?

What has he learnt?

Why has she learnt?

How has it learnt?

These open or 5WH questions get you more than the yes or no response of closed questions.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

5WH Subject Questions

Present tense, perfect aspect subject questions replace the subject of the sentence with the question word who or, if the subject is not a person, what.

Who has taught?

Richard has taught.

What has learnt?

The machine has learnt.

Who have learnt?

My students have learnt.

What have learnt?

The machines have learnt.

The question words, who or what, give us the subject of the sentence.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Present Perfect Negative

Let’s take a look at some examples of present tense, perfect aspect, negative sentences.

I have not taught.

We have not learnt.

You have not learnt.

They have not learnt.

He has not learnt.

She has not learnt.

It has not learnt.

Negative sentences are very easy to form as you just have to put a not after the auxiliary have.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Negative Contractions

Contractions are often used in spoken English.

When written, a contraction uses an apostrophe to show that some letters are missing.

I haven’t taught.

We haven’t learnt.

You haven’t learnt.

They haven’t learnt.

He hasn’t learnt.

She hasn’t learnt.

It hasn’t learnt.

The apostrophe in n’t marks the missing letter O.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Negative Contractions

We can also contract the present tense, perfect aspect negative thus:

I’ve not taught.

We’ve not learnt.

You’ve not learnt.

They’ve not learnt.

He’s not learnt.

She’s not learnt.

It’s not learnt.

The apostrophe in ’s and ’ve marks the missing letters ha.

The perfect aspect = have plus past participle.

Uses

Perfect means finished.

The tense of a sentence is marked by an inflected form of have. For the perfect aspect, the verb have always comes before a past participle form of a non-finite verb.

I have taught.

You have learnt.

She has learnt.

The have plus past participle tells us that this is the perfect aspect, the aspect that shows a finished action.

The tense of have is present and is shown by one of the two present tense inflected forms of have; have and has.

Therefore, this action was finished in the present and we call this the present perfect.

Past Continuous vs Past Simple

Do you remember that Captain Britlish was doing Kung Fu when he twisted his knee?
(past continuous – past simple with hidden do [did twist])

The past simple tells us only that something happened in the past.

There is no connection to the present and it does not tell us if Captain Britlish still has a twisted knee.

Present Perfect Now

The present perfect connects the past with the present.

Why is Captain Britlish limping?

Because he has twisted his knee.

The finished event in the past has a direct effect on the present.

The events in the past must be recent enough to have an effect on the present.

The present perfect tells us that Captain Britlish still has a twisted knee.

Grammar Activator

The best way to activate what you have just learnt is to do some exercises where I can ask you some questions and tell you whether you are right or wrong.

You can do this in the Grammar Activator which is available on the next page.

Just click the Start Quiz button to begin.

You will be asked some random questions from a bank of questions.

Each time you complete the Grammar Activator you can refresh your browser and a new set of questions will be created for you.

Aspect and Tenses

A comprehensive English course covering the tenses and aspects of English in an easy-to-understand format with lots of self-test exercises to check your understanding. You will learn all you need to know about the 3 Key Verbs of English: Be, Do, Have. This course will let you see just how simple English grammar is. We will explore the present simple, the past simple, the present continuous, the post continuous, the present perfect and the present perfect past and present, along with present perfect time markers, the present perfect continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous.

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Present Simple - GA2

I told you about the past and present tenses in Grammar Activation Pack 1. I also introduced you to the aspects – simple, continuous, and perfect, and showed you why the three key verbs, do, be, and have, are so important. In this Grammar Activation Pack, I am going to tell you about the first of these key verbs, do, and how it is used for the simple aspect, present tense. The simple aspect of the present tense is marked by the auxiliary verb do, even when it appears to be missing. You might want to refresh your memory of the hidden do by taking another look at Grammar Activation Pack 1. The present tense of the verb do is used for the subjects, I, we, you, and they. When we use the gender specific, third person, singular subject pronouns, he, and she, we use does. This British English grammar is essential for all students of English and the many exercises in the pack will help you master it quickly and enjoyably.

Categories: Grammar


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Will Continuous and Will Perfect - GA15

In Grammar Activation Pack 13, we looked at how we use will and shall to talk about the future. In this Pack we will be looking at other ways to use will to talk about the future. You already know that the future tense is marked by will, the continuous aspect is marked by be +ing, and the perfect aspect is marked by have plus past participle. In this pack we will be looking at the differences between the future continuous the future perfect, and the future perfect continuous. The future continuous tell us that at a time in the future the action will be ongoing. We can use will be +ing in a similar way to be going to to talk about things we plan to do.    

Categories: Grammar


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